AP Psychology Exam Prep

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

psychology

1 / 770

Tags and Description

771 Terms

1

psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

New cards
2

behavior

an observable action

New cards
3

monism

seeing mind and body as different aspects of the same thing

New cards
4

dualism

seeing mind and body as two different things that interact

New cards
5

eclectic

use of techniques and ideas from a variety of approaches

New cards
6

empiricism

the view that knowledge should be acquired through observation and often an experiment

New cards
7

science

way of getting knowledge about the world based on observation

New cards
8

theory

a collection of interrelated ideas and facts put forward to describe, explain, and predict behavior and mental processes

New cards
9

scientific method

in psychology, the techniques used to discover knowledge about human behavior and mental processes

New cards
10

hypothesis

a tentative statement or idea expressing a causal relationship between two events or variables that is to be evaluated in a research study

New cards
11

experiment

a procedure in which a researcher systematically manipulates and observes elements of a situation in order to test a hypothesis and make a cause-and-effect statement

New cards
12

independent variable

the variable in a controlled experiment that the experimenter directly and purposefully manipulates to see how the other variables under study will be affected

New cards
13

dependent variable

the variable in a controlled experiment that is expected to change due to the manipulation of the independent variable

New cards
14

experimental group

in an experiment, the group of participants to whom a treatment is given

New cards
15

control group

subjects and not exposed to a changing variable in an experiment

New cards
16

variable

a condition or characteristic of a situation or a person that is subject to change (it varies) within or across situations or individuals

New cards
17

sample

a group of participants who are assumed to be representative of the population about which an inference is being made

New cards
18

random sample

selection of a part of the population without reason; participation is by chance

New cards
19

operational definition

a definition of a variable in terms of the set of methods or procedures used to measure or study that variable

New cards
20

participant

an individual who takes part in an experiment and whose behavior is observed as part of the data collection process

New cards
21

double-blind procedure

technique in which neither the persons involved for those conducting the experiment know in what group to participate is involved

New cards
22

debriefing

a procedure to inform participants about the true nature of an experiment after its completion

New cards
23

ethics

rules of proper and acceptable conduct that investigators use to guide psychological research

New cards
24

ethnocentrism

tendency to believe that one's own group is the standard, the reference point by which other people and groups should be judged

New cards
25

case study

a highly detailed description of a single individual or a vent

New cards
26

ex post facto study

describes differences between groups of participants that differ naturally on a variable such as race or gender

New cards
27

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior naturally without trying to manipulate and control the situation

New cards
28

correlational research

establish the relationship between two variables

New cards
29

survey research

the measurement of public opinion through the use of sampling and questioning

New cards
30

experimenter bias

expectation of the person conducting an experiment which may be affect the outcome

New cards
31

observer bias

expectations of an observer which may distort an authentic observation

New cards
32

response bias

preconceived notions of a person answering [a survey] which may alter the experiments purpose

New cards
33

informed consent

the agreement of participants to take part in an experiment and their acknowledgement that they understand the nature of their participation in the research, and have been fully informed about the general nature of the research, its goals, and methods

New cards
34

normal distribution

approximate distribution of scores expected when a sample is taken from a large population, drawn as a frequency polygon that often takes the form of a bell-shaped curve, called the normal curve

New cards
35

placebo

typically a pill that is used as a control in the experiment; a sugar pill

New cards
36

pseudoscience

an unscientific system which pretends to discover psychological information that his means are unscientific or deliberately fraudulent

New cards
37

representative sample

selection of a part of the population which mirrors the current demographics

New cards
38

significant difference

in an experiment, a difference that is unlikely to have occurred because of chance alone and is inferred to be most likely due to the systematic manipulations of variables by the researcher

New cards
39

self-fulfilling prophecy

when a researcher's expectations unknowingly create a situation that affects the results

New cards
40

statistics

branch of mathematics that deals with collecting, classifying, and analyzing data

New cards
41

descriptive statistics

general set of procedures used to summarize, condense, and describe sets of data

New cards
42

frequency distribution

a chart or array of scores, usually arranged from highest to lowest, showing the number of instances for each score

New cards
43

frequency polygon

graph of a frequency distribution that shows the number of instances of obtained scores, usually with the data points connect by straight lines

New cards
44

measure of central tendency

a descriptive statistic that tells which result or score best represents an entire set of scores

New cards
45

mean

the arithmetic average of a set of scores

New cards
46

median

the measure of central tendency that is the data point with 50% of the scores above it and 50% below it

New cards
47

mode

the most frequently occurring score in a set of data

New cards
48

range

the spread between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution

New cards
49

correlation coefficient

a number that expresses the degree and direction of the relationship between 2 variables, ranging from -1 to +1

New cards
50

inferential statistics

procedures used to draw conclusions about larger populations from small samples of data

New cards
51

normal distribution

approximate distribution of scores expected when a sample is taken from a large population, drawn as a frequency polygon that often takes the form of a bell-shaped curve, called the normal curve

New cards
52

standard deviation

a descriptive statistic that measures the variability of data from the mean of the sample

New cards
53

variability

the extent to which scores differ from one another

New cards
54

structuralism

school of psychological thought that considered the structure and elements of conscious experience to be the proper subject matter of psychology

New cards
55

introspection

a person's description and analysis of what he or she is thinking and feeling or what he or she has just thought about

New cards
56

functionalism

school of psychological thought that was concerned with how and why the conscious mind works

New cards
57

psychoanalytic

perspective developed by freud, which assumes that psychological problems are the result of anxiety resulting from unresolved conflicts and forces of which a person might be unaware

New cards
58

Gestalt psychology

school of psychological thought that argued that behavior cannot be studied in parts but must be viewed a s whole

New cards
59

behaviorism

perspective that defines psychology as the study of behavior that is directly observable or through assessment instruments

New cards
60

cognitive psychology

perspective that focuses on the mental processes involved in perception, learning, memory, and thinking

New cards
61

humanistic psychology

perspective that emphasizes the uniqueness of the individual and the idea that humans have free will

New cards
62

self-actualization

the human need to fulfill one's potential

New cards
63

sociocultural psychology

perspective concerned with how cultural differences affect behavior

New cards
64

evolutionary psychology

perspective that seeks to explain and predict behaviors by analyzing how the human brain developed over time, how it functions, and how input from the environment affects human behaviors

New cards
65

positive psychology

in emerging Theo psychology that focuses on positive experiences; includes subjective well-being, self-determination, the relationship between positive emotions and physical health, and the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to boorish

New cards
66

psychologist

professional who studies behavior and uses behavioral principles in scientific research or in applied settings

New cards
67

clinical psychologist

psychologist who treats people serious psychological problems or conducts research into the causes of behavior

New cards
68

counseling psychologist

psychologist who treats people with adjustment problems

New cards
69

psychiatrist

a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders

New cards
70

psychoanalyst

one who uses psychoanalysis to treat psychological problems

New cards
71

developmental psychologist

studies psychological development across the lifespan

New cards
72

educational psychologist

focuses on how effective teaching and learning take place

New cards
73

engineering psychologist

does research on how people function best with machines

New cards
74

forensic psychologist

applies psychological concepts to legal issues

New cards
75

health psychologist

focuses on psychological factors in illness

New cards
76

industrial/organizational psychologist

applies psychological principles to the workplace to improve productivity and the quality of work life

New cards
77

neuropsychologist

concerned with the relationship between brain/nervous system and behavior

New cards
78

psychometrician

focuses on methods of acquiring and analyzing data

New cards
79

school psychologist

assesses and counsels students, consults with educators and parents, and performs behavioral intervention when necessary

New cards
80

social psychologist

focuses on how the individual's behavior and mental processes are affected by interactions with other people

New cards
81

sports psychologist

helps athletes improve their focus, increase motivation, and deal with anxiety and fear of failure

New cards
82

confounding variable

anything that causes a difference between the IV and the DV other than the independent variable

New cards
83

demand characteristics

clues participants discover about the purpose of a study that suggest how they should respond

New cards
84

placebo effect

response to the belief that the IV will have an effect, rather than the IV's actual effect, which can be a confounding variable

New cards
85

percentile score

the percentage of scores at or below a certain score

New cards
86

refractory period

after firing when a neuron will not fire again no matter how strong the incoming message may be

New cards
87

acetylcholine (ACh)

neurotransmitter that causes contraction of skeletal muscles; lack of Ach linked with Alzheimer's disease;

New cards
88

action potential

an electrical current sent down the axon of a neuron and is initiated by the rapid reversal of the polarization of the cell membrane

New cards
89

ACTH (arenocorticotropic hormone)

released by adrenal glands; triggered by norepinephrine to prolong the response to stress (used in the sympathetic nervous system)

New cards
90

adrenal glands

endocrine glands located above the kidney and secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine, which prepare the body for "fight or flight"

New cards
91

afferent neuron

nerve cell that sends messages to brain or spinal cord from other parts of the body; also called sensory neurons

New cards
92

all-or-none principle

the law that the neuron either fires at 100% or not at all

New cards
93

amygdala

part of the limbic system; influences emotions such as aggression, fear, and self-protective behaviors

New cards
94

aphasia

inability to understand or use language

New cards
95

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions, rather, they are involved in higher mental processes such as thinking, planning, and communicating

New cards
96

autonomic nervous system

a division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions; made up of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

New cards
97

axon terminal

terminal button, synaptic knob; the structure at the end of an excellent terminal branch; houses the synaptic vesicles and neurotransmitters

New cards
98

axon

a single long, fiber that carries outgoing messages to other neurons, muscles, or glands

New cards
99

behavioral genetics

study of hereditary influences and how it influences behavior and thinking

New cards
100

brain

portion of the CNS above the spinal cord; consists of hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 29754 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(95)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard158 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard200 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 74 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard57 terms
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)