AP Psychology Review - Terms

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removal or destruction of brain tissue in a surgical procedure

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406 Terms

1

removal or destruction of brain tissue in a surgical procedure

ablation

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2

intensity level at which one can detect a stimulus 50% of the time

absolute threshold

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3

the process of modifying a schema to account for new information; the process of the eyes lens changing shape in order to focus on distant or near objects

accommodation

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4

a neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory and muscle movement

acetylcholine (ACh)

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5

desire for accomplishment, mastery of people, ideas, things, desire for reaching a high standard

need for achievement

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6

a test that assesses what one has learned

achievement test

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7

a process in classical conditioning by which the association of a neutral stimulus with a natural stimulus is first established

acquisition

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8

the electrical process by which information is transmitted the length of an axon

action potential

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9

the idea that dreams are the result of the cerebral cortex interpreting and organizing random flashes of brain activity, originating in the lower brain structures, especially the pons

activation synthesis

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10

source of the hormone norepinephrine which affects arousal

adrenal gland

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11

category of mental disorders characterized by disturbances in mood and emotion

mood disorders

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12

desire to associate with others, to be part of a group, to form close and intimate relationships

need for affiliation

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13

an image that remains after a stimulus is removed, especially one in which the colors are reversed

after image

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14

drugs which mimic the activity of neurotransmitters

agonists

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15

the most frequently used and abused CNS depressant in most cultures; its use affects mood, judgment, cognition

alcohol

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16

description of the action of neurons when firing

all-or-nothing

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17

seen when an individual is in a relaxed, unfocused, yet still awake state

alpha waves

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18

limbic system component associated with emotion, particularly fear and anger

amygdala

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19

Freud's pychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions

anal stage

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20

an eating disorder in which one starves oneself even though significantly underweight

anorexia (nervosa)

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21

drug which blocks the activity of neurotransmitters

antagonist

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22

loss of memory for events that occur after the onset of the amnesia; eg, see in a boxer who suffers a severe blow to the head and loses memory for events after the blow

anterograde amnesia

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23

loss of memory for events that occurred before the onset of amnesia; eg a soldier's forgetting events immediately before a shell burst nearby, injuring him

retrograde amnesia

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24

psychological disorder in which one demonstrates a lack of conscience

antisocial personality disorder

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25

the middle of the three ossicles

anvil

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26

impairment of language usually caused by damage to the left hemisphere

aphasia

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27

condition in which the sympathetic nervous system is in control

arousal

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28

a subdiscipline of computer science that attempts to simulate human thinking

artificial intelligence

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29

interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schema

assimilation

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30

areas of the cerebral cortex which have no specific motor or sensory repsonsibilities, but rather are involved in thinking, memory and judgment

association areas

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31

learning in which an organism learns that certain events occur together, such as my cat knowing that she will be fed when I get home from work

associative learning

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32

theory developed by Harlow; types include secure and insecure

attachment

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33

a relatively enduring evaluation of a person or thing; doesn't always match behavior

attitude

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34

feeling of being drawn toward another and desiring the company of a person

attraction

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35

a way of explaining others' behavior by either one's disposition or one's situation

attribution theory

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36

the area that sound waves pass through to reach the eardrum

auditory canal

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37

style of parenting in which the parent creates strict rules for the child and the child has little or no input into determining the rules

authoritarian

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38

division of the nervous system that control the glands and organs; its divisions arouse or calm

autonomic nervous system

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39

Erikson's stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt

autonomy vs. shame and doubt

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40

this cognitive shortcut features the idea that events which are vividly in memory seem to be more common

availability heuristic

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41

extension of the neuron which carries, via an action potential, information that will be sent on to other neurons, muscles or glands

axon

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42

stage of language development at about 4 months when an infant spontaneously utters nonsense sounds

babbling

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43

scientific investigations intended to expand the knowledge base

basic research

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44

scientific investigations intended to solve practical problems

applied research

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45

perspective on psychology that sees psychology as an objective science without reference to mental states

behavioral

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46

situation in which one's beliefs continue despite the fact that the ground for the beliefs have been discredited

belief perseverance

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47

openness to new experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

big 5 personality factors

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48

retinal disparity and convergence which enable people to determine depth using both eyes

binocular cues

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49

perspective that stresses links between biology and behavior

biological

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50

eye neurons that receive information from the retinal cells and distribute information to the ganglion cells

bipolar cells

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51

mood disorder in one experiences both manic and depressed episodes

bipolar disorder

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52

point in the retinal where the optic nerve leaves the retina so there are no rods or cones there

blind spot

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53

analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works its way up to the brain's integration of sensory information

bottom-up processing

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54

we have two, right and left, and some brain functions seem to centered in one or the other

hemispheres

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55

oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells upon entering the skull; controls fundamental survival processes like heartrate and breathing

brainstem

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56

eating disorder characterized by excessive eating followed by purging

bulimia nervosa

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57

the tendency to not offer help when needed if others are present who do not offer help

bystander effect

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58

theory of emotion that says that a stimulus causes simultaneously psyiological arousal and the subjective experience of an emotion

Cannon-Bard

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59

scientific investigation in which a single subject is studied in great detail

case study

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60

a method of creating static images of the brain through computerized axial tomography

CAT scan

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61

a form of schizophrenia in which the patient has muscle immobility and does not move

catatonic

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62

release of aggressive energy through activity or fantasy

catharsis

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63

consists of the brain and the spinal cord

Central Nervous System

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64

brain structure that controls well-learned motor activities like riding a bike

cerebellum

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65

the fabric of interconnecting cells that blankets the brain hemispheres; the brain's center for information processing and control

cerebral cortex

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66

using operant conditioning to teach a complex response by linking together less complex skills

shaping

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67

organizing units of information into manageable units such as memorizing a phone number as three groups of information 248-555-1212

chunking

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68

the daily biological rhythms that occur in a 24-hour period

circadian rhythm

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69

method of learning in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to a stimulus

classical conditioning

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70

developed by Carl Rogers, this humanistic therapy includes unconditional positive regard

client-centered therapy

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71

this type of psychologist studies, assesses and treats those with psychological disorders

clinical

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72

this coiled structure in the inner ear is fluid-filled and in it the energy from sound waves stimulate hair cells

cochlea

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73

this says that we will suffer discomfort and act to change the situation when our thoughts and actions seem to be inconsistent

cognitive dissonance theory

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74

perspective on psychology that stresses the importance of mental activities associated with thinking, remembering, etc

cognitive

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75

treatment for psychological disorders that centers on changing self-defeating thinking

cognitive therapy

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76

Jung's theory that we all share an inherited memory that contains our culture's most basic elements

collective unconscious

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77

a variety of disorders marked by inability to distinguish some or all colors

color blindness

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78

this adjective describes cultures in which the individual is less important than the group

collectivist

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79

Piaget's stage in which children learn such concepts as conservation and mathematical transformations; about 7 - 11 years of age

concrete operations

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80

the extent to which two measures of the same trait or ability agree

concurrent validity

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81

in classical conditioning, the response elicited by the conditioned stimulus

conditioned response

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82

generally, learning in which certain experiences make certain behaviors more or less likely; there are two forms of this

conditioning

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83

one type of hearing impairment caused by mechanical problems in the ear structures

conduction

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84

neurons in the retina that are responsible for color vision

cones

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85

a tendency to search for information that supports one's preconceptions

confirmation bias

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86

adjusting behavior to meet a group's standard

conformity

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87

extraneous factor that interferes with the action of the independent variable on the dependent variable

confounding variable

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88

one's awareness of one's environment and oneself.

consciousness

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89

includes passion, intimacy and committment

consummate love

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90

subjects in an experiment who do not receive application of the independent variable but are measured nonetheless for the dependent variable

control group

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91

a type of critical thinking in which one evaluates existing possible solutions to a problem to choose the best one

convergent thinking

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92

the transparent outer covering of the eye

cornea

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93

the fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres, enabling them to communicate

corpus callosum

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94

the degree of relationship between two variables

correlation

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95

a positive one near 1.0 indicates two variable are positively related; a negative number indicates a negative relationship; zero indicates no relationship

correlation coefficient

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96

type of study that measures a variable across several age groups at the same time

cross-sectional

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97

giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed

debriefing

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98

Freud's processes by which individuals express uncomfortable emotions in disguised ways

defense mechanisms

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99

when an individual seems to lose himself or herself in the group's identity

deindividuation

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100

moving people with psychological or developmental disabilities from highly structured institutions to home- or community-based settings

deinstitutionalization

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