PSY210 Developmental Psych Midterm Review

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Developmental psych

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218 Terms

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Developmental psych

The study of how individuals grow, change, and stay the same from conception to death.

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Life stages in Development

Prenatal : Conception to birth

Newborn : Birth to 1 months

Infancy : 1 month to 1 year

Toddlerhood: 1 year to 2 years

Preschooler / Early childhood : 2-6 years

Middle Childhood : 6-11 years

Adolescence : 11 to 18 years

Early/Young Adult : 18-40 years

Middle adulthood : 40-65 years

Late/older adulthood : 65+ years

Death

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Continuous development

Categorized by slow, gradual changes over time. Dependence on experience and children only improve in one specific area.

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Discontinuous Development

Characterized by abrupt changes and believe that experience is gained once you pass a certain developmental phase. Development has predictable ordered stages and improving in one domain affects all domains.

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Active or passive in development

Physical : mostly passive (set in place)

Cognitive : active

Environment : Before young adulthood, passive, after young adulthood, somewhat active.

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Universal or Context Specific

Universal : Puberty, learning a language

Context : Language that is acquired, family environment, sociocultural influences.

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Psychosexual theory of Development

Progress through stages which unconscious drives are focused on different parts of the body which stimulation is pleasurable. Each stage had Id Ego Superego conflict

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Id

Primitive mind with sexual and aggressive desires

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Ego

realistic part which mediates between the desires of the id and the morality of the super-ego.

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super-ego

moral conscience

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Oral Stage

(birth to 1 year)

Pure Id

Centered around the infants mouth

Conflict = too much (overfed) or too little (weaned early) oral stimulation.

Results in oral fixation later in life

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Anal Stage

(1-3 years)

Infants start to get potty trained at this point

Parents place restrictions on when and where you can poop.

Leads to formation of the ego

Influenced interactions with authority figures and how clean and punctual they are.

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Erikson Psychosocial Theory

Stage theory which required mastery of a stage to advance to the next and unsuccessful stages reappear as life problems.

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Trust vs Mistrust

Birth to 1 year

Exestnetial question : Can I trust this world.

Infants are completely reliant on the caregiver. Need to learn that their needs will be met.

Success = acquire the virtue of hope

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Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt

1-4 years

Existential Question : Is it okay to be me?

Toddlers start exploring their environment and need to feel like they can do their own and gain a sense of independence.

Balanced between restrictive and liberal parenting to teach autonomy but not lose sense of security.

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Behaviorist/Learning Theories

Believes that only behavior can be observed and all behavior is influenced by the physical and social environment

Operant conditioning

Social learning theory

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Social learning theory

Observation can teach children to imitate models therefore stimulus-response is not the only way to learn something

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Reciprocal determinism

Individuals and the environment interact and influence each other.

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Cognitive Theories

Children learn through cognitive/brain development

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20

Jean Piaget

Founded cognitive-developmental perspective on child development

Learn by interacting with the world around them and organizing what’s learn into schemas, or concepts, ideas and ways of interacting with the world

Created developmental stage models

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Jean Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage

Birth-2

Infants understand the world and think using only their sense and motor skills

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Jean Piaget’s Preoperational Stage

2-6 years

Preschoolers use their own thoughts to explore the world and develop language skills to communicate their thoughts to others.

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Concrete operational

7-11 years

Able to solve everyday logic problems, thinking not fully mature and tied to tangible and specific problems

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Jean Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage

12+

Use logical reasoning and abstract thought, able to imagine possibilities and hypothetical concepts.

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Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural Systems Theory

Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next via social interaction

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Zone of proximal development

Learning something new has to be challenging enough to engage the children but not too challenging that it’s outside of the child’s ability

<p>Learning something new has to be challenging enough to engage the children but not too challenging that it’s outside of the child’s ability</p>
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Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory

Development is a result of the ongoing interactions among biological, cognitive, and psychological changes within the person and his or her changing context.

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Bronfenbrenner’s Microsystem

Immediate physical and social environment surrounding the person

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Bronfenbrenner’s Mesosystem

The relations and interactions among microsystems

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Bronfenbrenner’s Exosystem

Consists of settings in which the individual is not a participant but that nevertheless influences him or her.

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Bronfenbrenner’s Macrosystem

The larger sociocultural context

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Bronfenbrenner’s Chronosystem

Referring to all environmental changes that occur over the life time which influences development.

Includes timing of events like major life transitions and historical events.

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Ethological and Evolutionary Developmental Theories

Applies principles and evolution and scientific knowledge about the interactive influence of genetics and environmental mechanism to understand changes people undergo throughout their lifetime.

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Ethological and Evolutionary Developmental Example

Before, our species dealt with sugar and food scarcity which made us seek out and enjoy sugary and calorically high foods, but now since we have abundant food and don’t use as much caloric energy so our evolutionary behavior for those foods is less optimal but still there for that old necessity.

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Post hoc ergo propter hoc

after this, therefore, because of this

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36

Texas sharpshooter fallacy

Finding patterns that aren’t really there because the data is relatively similar.

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Hawthorne Effect

Control groups can experience changes in the outcome because they know it’s a study

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Placebo Effect

Even though the control group doesn’t receive the treatment, they can still experience changes because they think they are.

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Order effects

Exposure to earlier trials can influence results of current/future trials.

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Double Hermeneutic

Social sciences

People are able to take that information and apply it to their own lives, thus changing their behavior.

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Single Hermeneutic --- Natural Sciences

The thing being studied cannot use research findings of that natural thing to change their behavior (ex. an atom can’t use chemistry findings to change their behavior)

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Incomplete dominance

Both genes influence the trait

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Polygenic inheritance

most rtaits are the result of the interaction of many genes

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Genomic imprinting

Gene expression is determined by whether it is inherited by the mother or the father.

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Huntington’s disease

Genetic condition

Brain cells die as a result of abnormal proteins.

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Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Genetic condition

Buildup of phenylalanine due to an inability to process it

Recessive disorder that occurs when both parents are carriers

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Fragile X-syndrome

Dominant recessive genetic disorder carried on X chromosomes, effecting males more severely.

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Colorblindness

Genetic condition linked which is sex chromosome-linked which leads to different perception of color.

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Behavior genetics

Study how genes and experiences combine to influence the diversity of human traits, abilities, and behavior.

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Heritability

the extent to which there is variation among people on a given characteristic is due to genetic differences.

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Selective breeding studies

Deliberately modify the genetic makeup of animals to examine the influence of heredity on attributes and behaviors.

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Twin adoption studies

Another genetic behavior study types which looks at the effect of environment while genes are held constant (since monozygotic twins share 100% genes)

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Passive gene-environment interaction

parents (who share genes) create an environment that already fits with the genotype to a large extent.

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Evocative / Reactive gene-environment interactions

Environment reacts to your traits

No influence over evocative.

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Active gene-environment interactions

You seek out environments that correspond to your traits.

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Reaction range

Wide range of potential expressions of a genetic trait, depending on environmental opportunities and constraints

Ex. genotypes for intelligence are impacted by an impoverished or enriched environment

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Canalization

A measure of the ability of a population to produce the same phenotype regardless of variability of its environment or genotype.

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58

Conception

Temperature gradients in the female reproductive system guides sperm towards the ovum while the sperm tracks the egg. Ovum exudes chemical signals to draw sperm closer. Sperm head releases enzymes to penetrate the protective layer of the ovum. Genetic contents merge.

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Zygote

Fertilized cell egg from egg and sperm meeting.

At the moment of conception a zygote is formed

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60

Pregnancy beginning

once the embryo implants into the uterus, pregnancy begins.

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Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

hormone released after implantation that sends signals to the body to stop the mensuration cycle

pregnancy tests look for hCG hormone

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Germinal period

Zygote begins cell division and travels down fallopian tube to the uterus

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Embryonic period

week 2-8

most rapid developments of the prenatal period takes place.

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64

Week 9 till birth

Fetus grows rapidly and organs become more complex and begin to function

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Brain formation

Day 21

Primitive neural tissue occupies the outermost layers of the embryonic cell.

neural plate dols to form neural grove, grove curls to form neural tube, anterior neural fold closes to form the brain.

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Ectoderm

Embryonic disk upper layer which will become the skin, nail, hair, teeth, sensory organs, and the nervous system.

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Endoderm

Embryonic disk lower layer which will become the digestive system, liver, lungs, pancreas, salivary gland, and respiratory system.

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Mesoderm

Embryonic disk middle layer which forms later and will become muscles, skeleton, circulatory system and internal organs.

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69

Teratogens

Agents that influence the prenatal environment to disrupt birth

Includes disease, drugs, and environmental factors

Within first week no susceptibility to teratogens since if there are any the body will spontaneously abort due to too much damage early on.

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70

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Due to alcohol exposure in pregnancy, varies with timing and amount of exposure.

Results in distinct pattern of facial features, growth deficits, deficits in intellectual development (planning, attention, problem solving, etc).

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Facial anomalies in fetal alcohol syndrome

flatter nose bridge, thin top lip, natural bumps between lip and nose are gone, eyes might be spaced more apart.

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Diet

inadequate consumption of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients can cause birth defects.

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Stress

Chronic and severe stress during pregnancy can result in low birth weight, premature birth, and a weakened immune system

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Mother’s age

Greater risk for pregnancy and birth complications, more vulnerable to pregnancy-related illnesses, and are more likely to give birth to a child with Down syndrome.

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Rhesus incompatibility

Mother’s immune system begins to attack the fetus because the fetus has the blood group antigen Rh and the mother doesn’t

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Ultrasounds

High frequency sound waves

Non-invasive, no threat to mother or child.

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Amniocentesis

Can be performed at 16 weeks

Sample of fetal cells is extracted from the fluid in the amniotic sac

Used when there’s an abnormal ultrasound, history of certain disease in the family, mother previously gave birth to child with birth defects. Down-syndrome, sickle cell, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy.

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78

Chronic Villus Samping

Can be performed at (10-13 weeks)

Fetal cells are extracted from the placenta

Used when there’s an abnormal ultrasound, history of certain disease in the family, mother previously gave birth to child with birth defects. Down-syndrome, sickle cell, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy

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79

C-section

Use of surgery to deliver the baby

Often used in emergencies like obstructed labor, breech birth, more than one baby, mother high blood pressure, problems with placental/umbilical cord.

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80

Dialation (stage 1)

Stage 1 and longest stage of childbirth

Mechanical stimulation of the cervix by descending fetal head activates sensory nerve endings, oxytocin is secreted into blood to cause contractions.

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Early phase of dilation

0-4 cm in dialation, contractions occur approximately 15-20 minutes apart, last on average 6-12 hours)

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Active phase of dilation

4-10 in dilation, contractions occur every 2-3 minutes, last on average 4-8 hours.

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Transition phase of dilation

Last part, very intense frequent contractions

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Delivery (stage 2)

Mother get’s intense urge to push

Baby head crowns (visible in opening)

Once head is out, baby is rotated to make the shoulders easier to emerge.

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Episiotomy

Small incision is made in the vagina to prevent greater tearing that could occur during childbirth.

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Delivery of the Afterbirth (stage 3)

further contractions separate the placenta from the uterine wall

Can take up to an hour for these contractions to expel the placenta from the uterus via the birth canal.

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Hypoxia

Birth complication of lack of oxygen

Umbilical cord pinched close or wrapped around the baby’s neck

Baby’s lungs might not be working properly

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Premature birth

Any birth before 37 weeks

Baby is still developing in preparation for life on outside

Cause include infection, problem with placenta, structural abnormalities of the uterus/cervix, complications due to other abdominal surgeries

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Low birth weight

Can develop normally with supportive care

Causes include premature birth, disruption of blood flow during pregnancy (maternal high blood pressure or pre-eclampsia), and more than one baby.

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APGAR scale

Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration

Need a score of 7 to 10 or high to mean the baby is doing well.

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91

Baby health comparatively

Information given in percentiles

If your child’s weight is at the 65th percentile, it means she/he weighs the same or more than 65% of all other babies his/her age.

If percentile extremely jumps up or down it’s of concern.

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92

Vision newborn

Vision is poor shortly after birth but develops rapidly

High-contrast images

Can only see 4-30” away

Different visual environments effect development (ex. strobe lights, horizontal eyes, one eye covered.)

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93

Taste and smell in newborns

developed at birth

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94

Hearing in new borns

An infants best sense

Startled easily by loud noises

Orient their heads towards sounds.

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Newborns activity

Sleep 16-20 hours a day

50% of sleep is REM

Newborns = more sensory information goes in requires more processing during sleep.

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Cephalocaudal development

One infant growth pattern, growth proceeds from the head downward.

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Proximodistal development

Second infant growth pattern, growth and development proceed from the center of the body outward.

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Newborn weight fluctuation

Newborns shed 5-10% of their body weight a few days after birth but gain it back within 2-3 weeks

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Newborn Size

Double birth weight by 5 months — triple by 12 months.

gain 30 cm during first year

size can differ by heredity

environment factors like nutrition, sea level, and ethnicity can effect it

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Breastfeeding

the best way to ensure babies get proper nutrients, including antibodies which can strengthen immune system.

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