Biological Molecules

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1

macromolecules

large carbohydrates, protiens and nucleic acids

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polymer

a long molecules consisting of many similar or identical building linked by covalent bonds

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Monomers

the repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer

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each class of polymer is made up of

different type of monomer

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enzymes

Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things (polymers)

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condensation reaction

a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to each other with the loss of a small molecule

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dehydration reaction

A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

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How are macromolecules formed?

Dehydration synthesis, forms polymers by combining monomers by "removing water"

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9

Polymers are disassembled to monomers by

hydrolysis

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hydrolysis

Breaking down polymers to monomers by the chemical addition of water

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How does digestion work?

active site binds substrate and puts stress on bonds that must be broken, making it easier to separate molecules

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how do cells use dehydration

They can use the new monomers to form polymers to perfom specific functions in the body

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dehydration reaction model

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hydrolysis model

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All Organic Molecules have

Carbon

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Carbon is the only element that can form

long, stable chains between 0 C-100 C

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Most common elements in biological molecules:

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

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What are the four macromolecules?

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

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Biological molecules have

carbon chains

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20

Functional groups are attached to

the carbon chains

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functional groups

the components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions

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The number and arrangement of functional groups give

each molecule its unique properties

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Hydroxyl group (—OH)

In an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom. Polar due to electronegative oxygen. Forms hydrogen bonds with water. Compound name: Alcohol

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hydroxyl group model

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Carboxyl group (—COOH)

Acts as an acid. Compound name: Carboxylic acid, or organic acid

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carboxyl group model

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Amino group (—NH2)

Acts as a base. Compound name: Amine

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amino group model

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Phosphate group (—OPO32−)

Contributes negative charge. When attached, confers on a molecule the ability to react with water, releasing energy. Compound name: Organic phosphate

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Phosphate group model

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different functional groups

hydroxyl group Carboxyl groups amino groups Phosphate groups methyl groups

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methyl group model

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Methyl group (—CH3)

Affects the expression of genes. Affects the shape and function of sex hormones. Compound name: Methylated compound

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Proteins

Long chains of amino acids

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small chain of protiens are called

peptides

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functions of protiens

structural, enzymatic, gene regulation and many others

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amino acids

building blocks of proteins

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all amino acids alone are

hydrophilic

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organic hydrophobic molecules

alkanes, oils, fats, and greasy substances in general.

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Nonpolar/hydrophobic side chains of protiens examples

alanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine

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Nonpolar side chains of protiens

hydrophobic

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Polar side chains of protiens examples

serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, cysteine

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Polar side chains of protiens

hydrophilic

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Electrically charged side chains;

hydrophobic

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Polypeptides

polymers of amino acids

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Amino acids are linked by covalent bonds called

peptide bonds

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Polypeptides range in

length from a few to more than a thousand monomers

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How do peptides form?

dehydration

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Proteins can also be

enzymes

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Protien enzymes structure

ribbon structure

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Enzymes catalyze

reactions in the cell

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Proteins can Transport

other molecules

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Aquaporin

A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that facilitates the passage of water through channel proteins.

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ferritin

iron storage protein

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Proteins can be

structural

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Collagen

Fibrous protein that gives the skin form and strength

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Protein filaments form

the cytoskeleton

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the cytoskeleton

A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement

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Defensive Proteins

antibodies of the immune system

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Mylofilaments

elaborate networks of the actin and myosin filaments that bring about movement or contraction in all cell types

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Gene Regulation

ability of an organism to control which genes are transcribed in response to the environment involves protiens

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Zinc-finger DNA

bind proteins

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histones

protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

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the different proteins structures

primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary

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primary protien structure

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what determines the secondary protien structure

Hydrogen bonding

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secondary structure of protein

protein structure is formed by folding and twisting of amino acid chain

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what determines the tertiary structure of protiens

Amino acid side groups Hydrophobic Interactions and Ionic Bonding

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tertiary structure of protiens

The final three-dimensional shape maintained by various types of bonding between R groups Covalent, ionic, hydrogen bonding, disulfide bonding

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quaternary structure of a protein

A number of polypeptide chains linked together, and sometimes associated with non-protein groups to form a protein.

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molecular structure of hemoglobin

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beta symbol

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Denaturing

changing the conformation of a protein through, pH, temperature, or salt concentration changes

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misfolding of protiens

-alzheimer's -parkinson's disease -mad cow disease

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alhithe amino acid sequence

A slight change in primary structure can affect a protein's structure and ability to function

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sickle cell disease

an inherited blood disorder, results from a single amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobin

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Hemoglobin

An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen.

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protien monomer

amino acids (20)

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Protein polymers are made up of _____ monomers.

amino acid monomers

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protein polymers

polypeptides protein peptides

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protein functional groups

-NH2 (amino) -COOH (carboxyl) SH

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nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

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nucleic acid monomer

nucleotide ACGT ACGU ATPGTP

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ACGT

DNA

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ACGU

bases of RNA

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Nucleic acid polymers

DNA, RNA polynucleotides

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nucleic acid functional groups

P NH2 OH

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Carbohydrates monomers

monosaccharides, disaccharides, lactose, succose

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carbohydrate polymers

glucose starch, glycogen, cellulose chitin (fungi arthropods) Polysaccharides

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e storage

starch glycogen

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carbohydrates functional groups

carbonyl and hydroxyl

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Normal Hemoglobin function

Molecules do notassociate with oneanother; each carriesoxygen.

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sickle cell hemoglobin

molecules crystallize into a fiber; capacity to carry oxygen is reduced

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Roles of Nucleic Acids

store and transmit genetic info

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two types of nucleic acids

deoxyribonucleic acid ribonucleic acid

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DNA id genetic

material

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RNA is genetic

expression

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nucleotide structure

5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base

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nitrogenous bases

pyrimidines and purines

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pyrimidines

cytosine, thymine, uracil

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