NPB 110B

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olfactory system

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olfactory system

the sensory system for smell

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olfactory receptor neurons

receptor cells that initiate the sense of smell

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depolarizing current

inward

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when chlorine leaves the cell...

creates a negative/inward current

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how many receptor proteins does each ORN possess

one

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how many odorants can each ORN respond to

many

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each olfactory nerve projects

ipsilaterally to the olfactory bulb

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gustatory system

the sensory system for taste

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how many receptors can a taste receptor cell express for different tastants

several

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salt and sour tastes are elicited by

ionic stimuli

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sweet, umami, and bitter all act through

GPCRs

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vestibular receptors

mechanoreceptors that detect fluid movement in the labyrinths of the inner ear

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depolarization of vestibular hair cells is caused by

the stereocilia movement towards the kinocilium

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hyperpolarization of vestibular hair cells is caused by

stereocilia movement away from the kinocilium

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when short hairs tip in the direction of tall hairs

stimulates the firing of cranial nerve 8

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when tall hairs tip in the direction of short hairs

inhibits the firing of cranial nerve 8

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how many total semicircular canals

6

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each semicircular canal responds to

angular head acceleration during rotation of the head in their plane

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endolymph

high in K+ and low in Na+

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otolith organs

utricle and saccule

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otolith organs provide information about

linear acceleration and changes in head position relative to the forces of gravity

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utricle lies

horizontally

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saccule is oriented

vertically

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which way are utricle hair cells are oriented

towards the striola

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which way are saccule hair cells oriented

away from the striola

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vestibular nerve has how many subdivisions

two

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superior vestibular nerve

horizontal and anterior semicircular canals and utricle

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inferior vestibular nerve

posterior semicircular canal and saccule

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axons of the vestibular nerve synapse in the

vestibular nucleus

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four major vestibular nuclei

superior nucleus, lateral nucleus, medial nucleus, descending nucleus

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superior and medial nuclei receive input predominately from the

semicircular canals

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lateral nucleus receives input mainly from the

canals and otolith organs

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descending nucleus receives input from the

otolith organs and projects to the cerebellum and spinal cord

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lateral and superior vestibular nuclei project to the

thalamus

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from the thalamus, the vestibular neurons project to the

vestibular cortex

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lateral vestibulospinal tract

Axons arising in the lateral vestibular nucleus that project ipsilaterally to facilitate lower motor neurons to extensor muscles and simultaneously inhibit lower motor neurons to flexor muscles via interneurons.

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medial vestibulospinal tract

Axons arising in the medial vestibular nucleus that project bilaterally to the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Affects the activity of lower motor neurons that control the neck and upper back muscles.

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vestibulo-ocular reflex

Coordination of motion information with visual information that allows you to maintain your gaze on an object while you move

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vestibulo-colic reflex

keeps the head still in space or on a level plane when you walk

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vestibular spinal reflex

adjusts posture for rapid changes in position

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basal ganglia and cerebellum have no direct connection to the

lower motor neurons

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motor homunculus discovered by

Wilder Penfield

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Edward Evarts findings

concluded that cells were muscle like; the force, not displacement of the wrist, correlates with neuron firing

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Georgopolus Experiments

results show that cells are tuned to direction

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individuals with lesions in the premotor cortex may have difficulty

performing movements in response to verbal commands

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cerebellum function

coordination, balance, motor learning

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Vestibulocerebellum

maintenance of balance, control of eye movements

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Spinocerebellum

Enhances muscle tone and coordinates skilled, voluntary movements

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lateral cerebellum

area of the cerebellum responsible for voluntary movement of extremities

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caudate nucleus and putamen

receive input from the cerebral cortex and send output to the globus pallidus

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globus pallidus

component of the basal ganglia that connects to the thalamus which relays information to the motor areas and the prefrontal cortex

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Huntington's Disease

A human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele; characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration of the nervous system; usually fatal 10 to 20 years after the onset of symptoms.

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Key Symptoms of Huntingtons Disease

chorea - abnormal involuntary writhing movements

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Parkinson's disease

a progressive disease that destroys brain cells and is identified by muscular tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis

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muscle spindles

transducers of muscle length and located in parallel

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Golgi tendon organs

located in series and transducers of muscle force

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the role of gamma motor neurons

regulate the gain of muscle spindles so they can operate efficiently at any length of the parent muscle

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motor neurons innervating axial (proximal) musculature are located

medially

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motor neurons innervating the distal musculature are located more

laterally

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corticospinal tract

90% of the fibers cross at lower medulla

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pontine reticulospinal tract

excitatory synpase on leg extensors and arm flexors

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medullary reticulospinal tract

inhibitory synapse

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lesion of corticopinal tract

substantial deficit in the control and coordination of fine finger movements

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lesion of the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts

severe postural deficits

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lesion in spinal cord

loss of all descending input and normal neurologic reflexes

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monosynaptic component

an excitatory loop from the spindle to the alpha motor neuron back to the muscle containing the spindle

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disynaptic component

from the spindle to inhibitory interneurons to the alpha motor neuron innervating the antagonistic muscle

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what kind of feedback loop does the stretch reflex operate as

negative

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ALS

caused by the degeneration of the alpha motor neurons and their input from the cortex

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myasthenia gravis

the acetylcholine that is released at the neuromuscular junction fails to consistently elicit an action potential in the muscle fiber because the body is making antibodies against the receptors.

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Facilitation

a very brief, rapid increase in synaptic strength, lasting only tens to hundreds of milliseconds

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augmentation

an increase in synaptic strength, lasting several seconds

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depression

a decrease in synaptic strength, lasting several seconds

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Post-tetanic potentiation

an increase in strength lasting minutes

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long term potentiation

an increase in synaptic strength that lasts for hours or longer

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long term depression

a decrease in synaptic strength that lasts for hours or longer

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facilitation is a

presynaptic event

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NMDA glutamate receptors are permeable to ___ but blocked by ___

Ca2+, Mg2+

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Habituation in Sea Hares

over many trials, touching the siphon no longer causes the gill to contract vigorously

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Sensitization

response elicited by a noxious stimulus to other non-noxious stimuli

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During habituation of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia

transmission at the glutamatergic synapse between the sensory and motor neuron is depressed

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during sensitization

there is a recruitment of additional neurons

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Hebb's postulate

coordinated activity of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron strengthens the synapse

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strabismus

condition where the eyes deviate when looking at the same object

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