Chapter 6

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how is electronegativity used?

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how is electronegativity used?

It is used to predict the type of bonds that will form during a reaction

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electronegativity

the ability an atom has to attract electrons when the atom is a compound

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Ionization energy

energy required to remove an electron, is measured when element is in gas phase

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Atomic radius

1/2 the distance between nuclei of 2 atoms of the same element that are joined

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metal

-left of metalloid line -80% of all elements on the periodic table -high luster -can conduct heat and electricity well -ductile and malleable

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non-metals

-right of metalloid line -many are gases at room temperature -Bromine is the only liquid -bad at conducting heat and electricity -brittle if solid

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metalloids

-elements along the metalloid line -have both metal and non-metal properties

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Periodic Law!! (Essay question)

when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physcial and chemical properties

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rows

-called periods -properties change as you move across -side to side

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columns

-called groups or families -columns have similiar properties -up and down

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Dobereiner

-1829 -grouped elements into triads (3) -didn't work for all elements

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Newlands

-1864 -grouped elements into octaves (8) -didn't work for all elements

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Mendeleev

-1869 -grouped elements based on their atomic mass and repeating prop. -predicted properties of undiscovered elements

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Mosley

-1913 -arranged elements by their atomic number -today's periodic table

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columns 1 & 2

s-block

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columns 13-18

p-block

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columns 3-12

d-block

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what block is the bottom 2 rows?

f-block

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Group 1

alkali metals

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Group 2

alkali earth metals

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group 17

halogens

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group 18

noble gases

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group 1,2,13-18

transition metals

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what group is the bottom 2 rows?

inner transition metals

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Is a positive or negative ion larger than its parent?

a negative ion because it gains an electron

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Is a positive or negative ion smaller than its parent?

a positive ion because it loses an electron

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how does atomic size change from top to bottom?

increases from top to bottom

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how does atomic size change from left to right?

decreases from left to right

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how does ionic size change from left to right?

decreases from left to right

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how does ionic size change from top to bottom?

increases from top to bottom

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how does ionization energy change from top to bottom?

size decreases top to bottom

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how does ionization energy change from left to right?

size increases left to right

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how does electronegativity change from top to bottom?

decreases top to bottom

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how does electronegativity change from left to right?

increases left to right

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what do metals tend to form and why

they tend to form cations because they lose electrons

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what do nonmetals tend to form and why

they tend to form anions because they gain electrons

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what are cations

positive ions

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what are anions

negative ions

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why are noble gases special?

because all orbitals are completley full

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what determines the properties of an element

electrons

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