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knowledge to produce high quality silk

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knowledge to produce high quality silk

according to Porcopius, two sixth century Christian monks undertook an elaborate smuggling operation to provide Byzantium with the knowledge to produce?

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Byzantium

the only classical society that survived in the centuries after 400 CE was the?

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trade routes linked it to ports throughout the Med. Basin

Byzantium's major advantage was?

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TRUE: most important political/military center of eastern Roman empire , clearing house for trade

which of the following statements about Constantinople is NOT true?

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western

which part of the Mediterranean basin was never part of the Byzantine empire?

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arab muslims

up through the 8th century, the chief foreign threat to the eastern Roman Empire was?

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a tightly centralized rule that concentrated power in the hands of a highly exalted emperor

the most important political feature of the Byzantine state was?

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caesaropapism

the mixture of secular and religious authority that marked Constantine's reign as well as that of the Byzantine emperors is known as?

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the emperor not only ruled as secular lord but also played an active and prominent role in ecclesiastical affairs

historians use the term caesaropapism to refer to?

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unnecessary complexity and convolution

the adjective "byzantine" drawn from the government of Byzantium, stands for?

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striptease artist

Theodora's career before marrying Justinian was as a?

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a church that later became a mosque and museum that ranks as one of the world most important examples of Christian architecture

Hagia Sophia was?

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Corpus iuris civilis (body of the civil law)

Justinian's most important and long-lasting political achievement was?

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immediately won recognition as the definitive codification of Roman law

justinian's issuance of the Corpus iuris civilis?

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Belisarius (justinian's general)

Italy, Sicily, northwestern Africa, and southern Spain were brought back under imperial control by the military victories of?

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islamic forces

constantinople withstood seiges in 674-678 and 717-718 by

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theme system

one of the causes of Byzantine resurgence was the political innovation wherein a general was given military and civil control over an imperial province or?

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Basil II

the Byzantine ruler who led a resurgence of power in the 11th century by crushing the Bulgars was?

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a devastating incendiary weapon compounded of sulphur, lime, and petroleum

the term Greek "fire" refers to?

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Kleidion

Basil II crushed the Bulgars in 1014 at the Battle of?

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Theodora

the wife of Justinian, who proved to be an invaluable adviser, was?

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Charlemagne

a direct challenge to the Byzantine emperor arose in the year 800 when the pope gave an imperial crown to the Frankish king, ?

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lodged his own claim to rule as emperor over the western lands of the former Roman empire

in the year 962, Otto of Saxony?

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was the most important innovation in the reorganization of Byzantine society which placed an imperial province (theme) under the jurisdiction of a general, who assumed responsibility for both its military defense and civil administration

the theme system?

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silk

by the late 6th century, Byzantium became the Mediterranean world's leading producer of?

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was the Byzantine gold coin that became recognized as the standard of currency of the Mediterranean basin (6-12 c)

the bezant?

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Greek

from the 6th century on, the official language of Constantinople was?

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the Green and the Blues

the main factions during Justinian's time who contested in the Hippodrome and who occasionally fought in the streets were?

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government machinery called for large numbers of literate and intelligent individuals. workforce emerged mostly from a state-organized school system that offered a primary education in reading, writing, and grammar, followed by studies of classical Greek literature, philosophy, and science.

which of the following describes education in Byzantium?

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Nicaea

in 325 CE, in an effort to answer the Arians, Constantine brought together leading churchmen at the Council of ?

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Jesus had been a mortal human being and that he was a creation of God rather than a divine being coeternal with God.

the Alexandrian priest, Arius, leader of the Arians, believed that?

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iconoclasm

Emperor Leo III inaugurated the divisive ecclesiastical policy of?

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St. Simeon Stylite

which of the following was the first and most famous of the "pillar saints"?

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the patriarch of Constantinople during the mid 4th century, urged monasteries to adopt reforms that enhanced their effectiveness

St. Basil of Caesarea?

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mutually excommunicated each other, each refusing to recognize the other's church as properly Christian

in 1054 the pope in Rome and the patriarch in Constantinople?

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never got beyond Constantinople, which crusaders conquered and sacked in 1204

the Fourth Crusade, in early 1204, ?

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Venetians

in a disaster from which the Byzantine Empire never really recovered, Constantinople was sacked in 1204 by the?

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Saljuqs

in 1071, Byzantium lost the Battle of Manzikert and control over Anatolia to the?

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Manzikert

the Byzantine Empire suffered a devastating loss to the Saljuq Turks in 1071 at the Battle of?

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Ottoman Turks

Constantinople finally fell in 1453 to the?

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were two brothers from Greece who conducted missions in Bulgaria and Moravia. Devised an alphabet known as the Cyrillic alphabet for the previously illiterate Slavic peoples

Saints Methodius and Cyril?

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Kiev

What city, influenced heavily by Constantinople ,was most important in the early rise of Russia?

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Prince Vladimir of Kiev

the rise of Orthodox Christianity in Russia was helped by the conversion in 989 of?

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the worlds third Rome

by the 16th century, Russians had begun to think of Moscow as?

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hajj

the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca is known as the?

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submission

the term Islam means?

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Muslim

the phrase, "one who has submitted," is the meaning of the term?

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"the house of Islam" and refers to the lands under Islamic rule

the phrase dar al- Islam means?

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Khadija

in 595, Muhammad married a wealthy widow named?

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was written versions of Muhammad's revelations compiled by devout Muslims

the Quran?

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hijra (migration) when Muhammad moved to Medina

the turning point in the rise of Islam was?

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sharia

the Islamic holy law was known as the?

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caliph

no religious leader could follow Muhammad, so political authority rested in the position of the?

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Abu Bakr

after the death of Muhammad, political leadership fell to a caliph by the name of?

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descendants of Ali (the caliph) were infallible, and divinely appointed to rule the Islamic community

the Shia believed that?

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Shia

the main split inside Islam was between Sunni and ?

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the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty

after the assassination of Ali, power fell to?

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appointed members of the elite as governors and administrators of conquered lands, and they distributed wealth among them

the victorious Arabic armies of the Umayyad dynasty?

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jizya

the Umayyad forces allowed conquered peoples to maintain their own religions, but insisted that they pay a special head tax on those people who did not convert to Islam. This head tax was called the?

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Abu al-Abbas

the founder of the Abbasid dynasty was?

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it was more cosmopolitan than the Umayyad. the rulers didnt show special favor to the Arab military aristocracy. it also was not a conquering dynasty like the Umayyads

the Abbasid dynasty differed from the Umayyad dynasty in that?

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Baghdad

the capital of the Abbasid Empire was?

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learned people (literally means "people with religious knowledge")

the word "ulama" refers to?

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brought the high point of the Abbasid dynasty

the reign of Harun al-Rashid?

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Saljuqs

during the last 200 years of the Abbasid Empire, it fell under the control of the?

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Mongols

the Abbasid dynasty finally came to an end in 1258, when it was overrun by the?

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cotton

of all the new crops that spread through the Islamic world via trade, which one proved the most important?

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paper manufacture

what new industry, transmitted to the Islamic world from China, was introduced during the Abbasid period?

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inns offering lodging for caravan merchants and care for their animals

Caravanserais were?

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sakk

islamic banks honored letters of credit, which could be drawn on the parent bank, known as?

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Cordoba

the capital city of al-Andalus was?

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four

the Quran, following the example of Muhammad, allowed men to have up to how many wives?

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they started veiling women

how did the conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia influence the role of women in the Islamic world?

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Arabic

the only definitive and reliable text of the Quran has to be in?

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madrasas

in an effort to recruit learned students, Islamic leaders often financially supported institutions of higher learning called?

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they did not find formal religious teachings to be especially meaningful. instead of concerning themselves with fine points of doctrine, they worked to deepen their spiritual awareness.

the Sufis believed?

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was the most important Sufis who argued that human reason was too frail to understand the nature of Allah and couldnt explain the mysteries of the world. only through devotion and guidance from the Quran could humans appreciate Allah

the Persian al-Ghazali?

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DID: symbol= Ka'ba at Mecca, Abbasid caliphs encouraged hajj, and pilgrims who made the trip to Mecca spread Islamic values and beliefs all over parts of the Islamic world

which of the following factors did not help to bring unity to the Islamic world?

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political and cultural ways- administrative techniques and kingships

the Persian influence on Islam is best seen in?

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Omar Khayyam

the author of the Rubaiyat was?

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the Thousand and One Nights

the other name for the collection of stories known as the Arabian Nights is?

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math, science, and medicine

the main Indian influence on Islamic thought was in the field of?

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Gupta India

Arabic numbers actually had their origin in ?

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Ibn Rushd

the Islamic thinker who studied Aristotle and whose thought, in turn, influenced the rise of European scholasticism was?

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the development of scholasticism

the main influence on the thought of Ibn Rushd was?

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who placed more value on the revelations of the Quran than on the fruits of human logic

Ibn Rushd's reliance on natural reason went too far for many Muslims,?

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travelling beyond the China border to India and back

the Chinese Buddhist monk, Xuanzang, was famous for?

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Yang Jian

the Sui dynasty was founded in 589 by?

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the Grand Canal

the greatest contribution of Sui Yangdi, the second Sui emperor, was?

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the Grand Canal

the sui construction of which of these items would have important economic implications well into the twentieth century?

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Hangzhou to Beijing

the Grand canal stretched from what city in the south to what city in the north?

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Tang Taizong

the success of the Tang dynasty was due to its energetic second ruler. who was he?

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the equal field system

the Tang plan to avoid the concentration of land in the hands of the wealthy was called the?

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reflected the heavy reliance on a bureaucracy based on merit. most officeholders won their posts because of intellectual ability

during the Tang dynasty, the imperial civil service examinations?

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confucianism, administration (merit), equal field system, expansion into Korea/Vietnam, tributary relationships between China and neighboring lands

during the Tang dynasty?

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the poet Du Fu

who wrote the following lines? "Go to the Blue Sea, look along the shore at all the old white bones forsaken?"

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a ritual where subordinates knelt before the emperor and touched their foreheads to the ground

the kowtow?

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An Lushan

in 757, the Tang emperors were forced to invite the Turkish Uighurs to bring and army into China and suppress a rebellion by?

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Huang Chao

From 875-884, most of eastern China fell to this man, who rebelled because of popular discontent and who raided the wealthy and distributed his plunder to the poor?

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Song Taizu

the founder of the Song dynasty was?

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