AP bio exam review for Second Semester

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It is the basic structural molecule upon which steroidal hormones are built; Cholesterol molecules within the phospholipid bilayer help promote stability within biological membranes.

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It is the basic structural molecule upon which steroidal hormones are built; Cholesterol molecules within the phospholipid bilayer help promote stability within biological membranes.

Cholesterol is a fat that we are supposed to avoid in our diet, but it plays many important roles in our diet, what are some of these roles?

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LDL's

Are LDL's or HDL's dangerous in our diet?

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LDL's stick to the walls of blood vessels forming plaque; plaque lining blood vessels can lead to blockage that increases blood pressure and reduces the flexibility of affected vessels; plaque formation may also lead to atherosclerosis.

Why/How are LDL's dangerous to our diet?

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HDL's help to remove LDL's from our digestive tract ad blood vessels which reduces LDL's in our blood.

How do HDL's function in our bodies?

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Unsaturated fats and Omega-3 fatty acids from fish

What are HDL's?

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An ester linkage

The synthesis that forms a triglyceride from fatty acid tails and a glycerol molecule is called

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Fatty acid tails, a phosphate containing group, A dehydrated glycerol molecule

The phospholipid bilayer is composed of molecules containing all of the following components

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Testosterone

Many athletes have been known to use an anabolic steroid called androstenedione. This steroid functions as a precursor to....

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Increased risk of high blood pressure; Increased risk of muscle and tendon damage; reduction in bone growth resulting in reduced final height; increased risk of heart attack, liver disease, and some kinds of cacer; and mood swings including depressin and dangerous aggression

Anabolic risks pose many threats including:

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They are more efficient storage molecules; Carbohydrates break down easily; animals are motile, therefore they eed more stable storage molecules

Lipids are used as energy storage molecules in animals rather than carbhydrates like in plants because...

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They form the relatively impermeable barriers that delineate cells; They are used as chemical signals to carry messages to differnet parts of the body; They act as light absorbing pigments in plants.

What are the major functions performed by lipids in living tissue?

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Membranes and phospholipid bilayers

What type of lipid does this refer to? "They form the relatively impermeable barriers that delineate cells"

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Steroids

What type of lipid does this refer to? "They are used as chemical signals to carry messages to differnet parts of the body"

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Carotenoids

What type of lipid does this refer to? "They act as light absorbing pigments in plants"

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-COOH and -NH2

A peptide contains which funtional groups?

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A hydrogen bond (van der Waal's interaction)

If a C=O and an N-H group are placed in proximity of each other during secondary folding of a polypeptide chain they might form...

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The primary structure

A description of a protein as a single linear chain containing a particular sequence of amino acids describes which structure of a protein

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Hydrogen bonding; van der Waal's interaction; ionic bonding; and hydrophobic interactions

What causes secondary regional folding in a polypeptide chain?

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nucleotides and phospholipids

What organic compounds involve a phosphorylation in their formation?

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Phospholipids and triglycerides

What organic compunds involve an esterification in its formation?

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peptides

The monomers of amino acids are most appropriately referred to as...

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Tertiary

The description of a protein by the position of peptides in a 3-dimensional globular structure describes which structure of proteinss?

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gamma helix

A fibrous protein where there is a need for a strong, rigid, and unstrechable structural componenet...

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A carboxyl group, -COOH, an amino group, -NH2

Amino acids, by definition, contain whcih functional groups?

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Keratin, actin, myosin, elastin

What are examples of an alpha helix?

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The relative sizes of the N & H nuclei and the stronger attraction of e-'s to the N nucleus

th polarity of -NH2 grouo is due to...

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They are used in collagen in tendons where there doesn't need to be much strech

Where are gamma helix's used?

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The quaternary structure

An aggregate protein composed of globular subunits describes what level of protein structure?

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Haemoglobin

An aggregate protein composed of four myoglobin subunits and is the protein component of red blood cells

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Collagen

What is an example of a gamma-helix

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exergonic

A reacton in which energy is being released is called...

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Endergonic

What describes the free energy in an anabolic reaction?

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Endergonic and Anabolic

A SYNTHESIS of a polypeptide from peptide monomers would be best described as...

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Hydrolysis

The process by which starch decomposes to form alpha glucose monomers is called...

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Agnostic behavior

Aggression and submission are examples of responses organisms show to a conflict situation and are referred to as....

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Taxis

When organisms move directly toward or away from a stiulus, the movement is referred to as

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Glycosidic link

The bond that forms between monosaccharides as a result of condensation synthesis is called...

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The cell wall

Beta-glucose is used in the formation of cellulose, a molecule that is the primary component in the structure of...

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Maltose and Sucrose

What are some examples of a disaccharide

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Alpha-glucose, sucrose, fructose

Common table sugar is composed of/contains...

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It is referred to as dietary fiber, it keeps your colon healthy; It absorbs fats and moves them through the digestive tract and out of the body; It helps cleanse the digestive tract by moving undigested or indigestible materials through the digestive tract

How does Cellulose play an important roll in our diet?

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It is not utilized directly by cells so it is stored in the liver; In the liver it is converted to fat; a fatty liver can lead to symptoms of Type II diabetes; excess fat in the liver absorbs the hormone insulin that is required to maintain homeostasis

Why is fructose especially problematic in our diets?

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Mutualism

In the Korup forest of cameroon a black ant species lives in the hollow branches of the barteria tree. The ants clear algae and fungus from ht eleaves of the tree, and cut the creeping vines away. This would be an example of what type of symbiosis?

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Glycogen

What highly branched starch may be found as an energy storage carbohydrate in animal tissues?

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Alpha-linked monosaccharides

The carbohydrates most responsible for energy storage in nature tend to be composed of...

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Beta-linked monosaccharides

The carbohydrates most responsible for structural and strengthening components in nature tend to be composed of...

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High fructose corn syrup used as a sweetener in most soft drink

Probably the most significant source of fructose in the American diet is...

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They do not have the enzymes capable of breakin Beta-bonds

Many animals, including man, are not capable of utilizing cellulose produced by the plants becasue...

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alpha-helices

The alpha-linked polyssaccharides have a tendency to form what secondary structure?

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Exoskeletons in arthropods

Amino sugars are usually used as structural components in nature. The polymer chitin for example, is used in the structure of...

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An ester linkage

The bond that forms from the synthesis that produces a triglyceride from fatty acid tails and a glycerol molecule is called...

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Animal fat, whole milk, butter, lard, and foods containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil

What foods would be rich in saturated fats?

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Any alteration of the ecosystem, like human incursion, deforestation, global cliamte change and extinction

Specialization, like that seen in the organisms of the Korup forest, leaves organisms highly susceptible to...

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Intraspecific competition for nutrients

What can contribute to density-dependent regulation of populations?

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Precipitation, wind, nutrient availability, soil pH, temperatre, water, light intensity, and seasonality

What are important abiotic factors that can affect the structure and organization of biological communities?

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They are relatively high in O2 levels; Sediments contain low levels of decomposable organic matter; rates of photosynthesis are lower than that of eutrophic lakes; they are usually very clear

What are some facts about Oligatrophic lakes?

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Rates of photosynthesis are higher than in oligatrophc lakes; They contain higer concentrations of nutrients, especially N, P, and K; Sediments in eutrophic lakes contain high levels of decomposable material

What are some facts about Eutrophic lakes?

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800

To measure the population of Lake trout in a 250 Hectare lake, 200 individuals were netted and marked with a fin clip, and then returned to the lake. The next week, the lake is netted again, and out of the 200 lake trout that are caught, 50 have fin clips. USing the capture-recapture estimate, the lake trout population size could be closest to what?

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density

An ecologist recorded 12 white-tailed deer per square mile in one woodlot and 20 per square mile on another woodlot. What is the ecologist comparing?

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rising, warm, moist air masses cool and release precipitation as they rise and then at high altitude, cool and sink back to the surface as dry air masses after moving north or south of the tropics

Generalized global air circulation and ercipitation patterns are caused by...

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ecological niche

The sum total of an organisms interaction with the biotic and abiotic resources of its environmnet is called its

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Marked and unmarked individuals have the same probability of being trapped; the marked individuals are thoroughly mixed with the population after being marked; No individuals have entered or left the population by immigration or emigration, and no individuals have been added by birth or eliminated by death during the course of the estimate

What assumptions must be made the capture-recapture estimate of population size

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Cardinals, who actively defend their territory

WHat is an example of a group displaying uniform dispersion?

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Age when reproduction begins; how often reproduction occurs; and how many offspring areproduced per reproductive episode

The three basic variables that make up the life history of organisms are

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Periodic crowding affects the endocrine system, reesulting in aggressiveness; increases in populationdensity lead to increased rates of predation; increases in rates of herbivory lead to changes in the nutritive value of plants used as food; increases in population density lead to more proximal infestations of parasites to host animals.

Field observation suggests that populations of a particular species of herbivorous mammal undergo cyclic fluctuations in density at three- to five year intervals. What presents some plausible explanations of these cycles?

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Resource partitioning

White-breasted nuthatches and Downy woodpeckers both eat insects that hide in the furrows of bark in hardwood trees. The Downy woodpecker searches for insects by hnting from the bottom of the tree trunk to the top, while the white-breasted nuthatch searches from the top of the trunk down. These hunting behaviors best illustrate what ecological concept?

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A niche differentiation that allows for the coexistence of organisms and avoids competition. It forces different organisms to use a resource in different ways.

What is resource partitioning?

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Biological magnification

The high levels of pesticides found in birds of prey is an example of...

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Most of the energy in a trophic level is lost as it passes to the next trophic level

Why are food chains typically short?

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At each step energy is lost from the system as a result of keeping organisms alive.

For most terrestrial ecosystems, pyramids of numbers, biomass, and energy are essentially the same with a broad base and narrow top. What is the primary reason for this pattern?

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Find out how much nitrogen is consumed and eliminated by a canada goose over about a 12-hour period and multiply this number by 100; enter this +/- value into the nitrogen bufget of the ecosystem.

SUppose you are studying the nitrogen cycling in a pond ecosystem over the course of a year. While you are collecting data, a flock of 100 Canada geese lands and spends the night during a fall migration. What could you do to eliminate error in your study as a result of this event?

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The higher the concentration of an enzyme, the higher the rate of reaction AND the lower the concentration of the enzyme the lower the rate of reaction

What is the relationship between enzyme concentration and rate of reaction in a cell?

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When a protein configuration is changed due to heat, pH, or salinity so that it no longer functions as it should

What is the denaturing of an enzyme?

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Enzymes speed up the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy, the energy that is required to drive the reaction.

How do enzymes affect the rate of reaction?

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Active site

The groove in the surface of a three-dimensionalprotein molecule acting as an enzyme, the site at which reactants bind is called the...

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A cofactor, especially if it is an ion; a conenzyme, if it is another protein; and a prosthetic group, if it is an organic molecule other than a protein.

What is the name of the molecule or ion that is required to bind to the active sitesite of an enzyme to activate that enzyme so it can bind to reactants?

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A catalyst

2H2O2 -----catalase-----> 2H2O + O2

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uses energy to build complex molecules

What is an anabolic reaction?

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Breaks down larger molecules into smaller molecules

What is a catabolic reaction?

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Anabolic

Catechol + O2 ---Catecholase Cu++ ---> polyphenol

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Accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain, combining with H+ to form H2O

The oxygen consumed in cellular respiration in involved directly in which process or event?

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C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced

C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

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Most of the free energy available from the oxidation of glucose remains in pyruvate, one of the products of glycolysis.

The free energy for the oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water is -686 kcal/mole and the free energy for the reduction of the NAD+ to NADH is +53 kcal/mole. Why are only 2 molecules of NADH formed during glycolyisis when it appears that as many as a dozen could be formed?

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38 (or 36)

Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose in cellular respiration

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Other pigments absorb light in addition to Chlorophyll a, and the antenna pigments, like beta-carotene.

Why is the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll and the action spectrum for photosynthesis differnet?

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They can do this because they fix CO2 into organic acids during the night.

CAM plants keep stomata closed in the daytime, thus reducing loss of water. How can they do this?

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Oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)

Which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose is completely oxidized to Carbonn dioxide and water?

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ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resultin gin the production of...

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Glycolysis

The products ATP, NADH, and pyruvate are products produced as a result of what?

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a -COOH group, the H binds to NAD to form NADH

When glucose is completely oxidized to Carbon Dioxide and water, the CO2 breaks free in what form?

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The electron vacancies in p680 are filled by electrons derived from water when the water molecule is split

What describes the functioning of photosystem II?

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Oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

In what stage of cellular respiration is CO2 released?

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Bacteria congregated in thesea areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released

What did engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas?

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The relationship between wavelengths of light and the oxygen released during photosynthesis

An outcome of engelmann's experiment was to help determine

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Energy released from the movement of protons, hydronium ions, through ATP synthase in the mitochondrial matrix

What is the most direct source of energy used to convert ADp +Pi to ATP in chemiosmotic phosphorylation?

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THe pH within the thylakoid is less than that of the Stroma.

What is the relationship between the pH of the inner thylakoid space and the pH of the stroma and cytosol?

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Splitting the water molecules

When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a by-product

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To synthesize simple sugars from cabon dioxide

What is the primary function of the Calvin-Benson cycle?

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The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions

What describes the relationship between the light reactions and the calvin cycle?

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The inhibitor binds to the active site of the enzyme, preventing the substrate from binding

How does a competitive inhibitor function?

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