A Level Sociology

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Norm

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Sociology

All Terms

145 Terms

1

Norm

A form of behaviour which is thought of as 'normal' within a culture. -e.g: Leaving the house with clothes on.

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Value

Principle/Belief System -e.g : Life is precious and we should not kill anybody

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3

Structuralist theories

Functionalism Marxism Feminism

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4

Value Consensus

When values are shared by a group.

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5

Status

Relative social or professional position/ social standing.

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6

Ascribed Status

Status an individual is born into.

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7

Achieved Status

Status that is earned, based on the individuals own actions and behaviours.

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8

Role

A pattern of behaviour designated to an individual based on their commitments in society . E.g a student, a friend.

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9

Role Conflict

When different roles collide and cause conflict. For example the role of being a part-time worker may interfere with the role of a student.

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10

Socialisation

The learning of norms and values of a culture of a society.

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11

Resocialisation

Learning new norms and values, for example when an individual enters a different society.

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12

Agents of socialisation

The name that Functionalists give to establishments that socialise us. ▪Family ▪Education ▪Workplace ▪Media ▪Religion ▪Peers

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13

Primary Socialisation

Socialisation during the early years of childhood, mainly by the family. Children learn basic norms and values and begin to develop their individual identity and their social identity.

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14

Secondary Socialisation

Socialisation that takes place outside of the family, leads to the development of secondary identities.

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15

Hidden Curriculum

The hidden teaching of behaviour through rules, teacher behaviour etc. in education.

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16

Formal Curriculum

The subjects taught in the education system. This socialises people as in subjects such as RS, children learn about the norms and values of cultures.

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17

Particularistic Values

A child/person is treated as an individual and therefore differently to others.

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18

Universalistic Values

An individual is treated according to the same standards as everyone else in society.

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19

Informal Social Control

Peer groups use sanctions to show approval/disapproval towards an action of an individual. There is NO real consequence of not obeying this type of social control.

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20

Formal Social Control

Agents of socialisation such as the workplace and institutions such as the police force control an individual in this way. There ARE real consequences if individuals do not obey.

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21

Globalisation

The increasing interconnectivity and global links between countries. Information is drawn from all over the world.

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22

Capitalist Society

A society focused on economic wellbeing and business of the middle and upper classes.

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23

Collective identity

A type of identity generally found among religions and other groups. An individual has chosen to identify with the group and adopt the identity.

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24

Culture

Norms, values, customs and ways of life of a society or group within society.

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25

Dominant Culture

The main culture within a society, which is accepted without opposition by the majority of people.

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26

Subculture

Smaller cultures/groups within a bigger culture.

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27

Folk Culture

A culture created by local communities. This generally includes active participation rather than passive consumption.

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28

Global Culture.

The outcome of cultures becoming more similar and 'Americanised' due to globalisation.

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29

International Division of Labour

The world is economically interconnected through production and trade of goods.- E.g Nokia have headquarters in Finland but distribute products on a global scale.

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30

Cultural Homogenisation

Globalisation has made cultures of different countries become alike and merge into one uniform, (generally americanised) culture.

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31

High Culture

The culture belonging to the upper class and the most elite members of society.

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32

Mass/Popular Culture

Culture that is produced on a wide scale, aimed at the mass of ordinary people. It is produced for profit.

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33

Low Culture

An insulting term used for mass/popular culture, suggesting its inferiority to high culture.

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34

Identity

The way we see ourselves in relation to other people, it involves similarity and differences between people.

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35

Master Status

The dominant status/attribute of an individual that is seen before all other aspects of a persons identity.

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36

Passive Identity

A type of identity that you were born or socialised into.

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37

Active Identity

A type of identity that people actively try to pursue.

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38

Multiple Identities

People have several identities rather than just one.

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39

Social Identity

This defines individuals in reation to social groups to which they belong and how they differ from other social groups.

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40

Individual/Personal Identity

How individuals define themselves. -e.g: Signature, Fingerprint, National Insurance Number.

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41

Stigmatised Identity

An identity which is in some way demeaning or exludes people from full acceptance in society (e.g Muslim identity).

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42

Social Solidarity

The feeling of being accepted and a part of society.

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43

Anomie

The feeling an individual experiences when they do not feel accepted/a part of society.

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44

Social Control

A primarily Marxist term, the act of influencing and controlling members of society.

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45

Ruling Class Ideology

The values of the dominant/ruling class (upper).

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46

Social Class Inequality

The unfair differences between the upper and lower classes.

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47

Reproduction of Social Class Inequality

Constantly creating more social inequality between the classes.

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48

Legitimacy of Social Class Inequality

Justifying the inequality in society as causing people to forget the exploitation they are being exposed to.

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49

False Class Consciousness

The lower classes are misled to believe that they are NOT being exploited and that they are not fallint victim to the capitalism in society.

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50

Bourgeosie

The marxist term for the upper class.

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51

Deferred Gratification

Giving up things in the present for the sake of greater gains in the future.

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52

Proletariat

The marxist term for the lower class.

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53

Patriarchy

a nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity and the dominance of hegemonic masculinity. Male dominated society

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54

Future Orientation

Planning for the future.

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55

Oakley's 4 Processes

Ways in which children are socialised by the family into their hegemonic gender role.

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56

Middle Class

A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers.

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57

Working Class

People who work for wages in manual labour jobs such as factory workers.

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58

Manipulation

Ways in which parents encourage and discourage behaviour on the basis of how appropriate it is for the child's sex.

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Features of Traditional Working Class

Close knit community Traditional gender roles Manual Labour Skill over academic Popular and folk culture

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60

Canalisation

Ways in which parents direct children's interests into toys and hobbies appropriate for that sex.

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61

Verbal Appelations

Calling a child 'nicknames' specific to either the hegemonic male or hegemonic female gender role. e.g Soldier, Champ, Princess, Sweetie

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Immediate Gratification

Seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future

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63

Present Time Orientation

Seeing the present as more important than the future

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64

Different Activities

Children are encouraged to help with gender specific tasks. For example daughters may be encouraged to help eith domestic tasks while sons may be encouraged to help with manual labour.

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65

Cultural Dopes

Individuals are seen as ................ or puppets, where they simply accept norms and values with little input from the individual.

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66

Fatalism

The belief that all events are determined in advance by fate and cannot be changed.

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67

Self Concept

Your own sense of who you are.

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68

Characteristics of The New Working Class

Privatised, home centred lifestyle Instrumental approach Women are likely to be in paid employment High levels of home ownership Emphasis on conspicuous consumption.

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69

Looking Glass Self

Our identity is formed based on how we think others see us. We try to change ot behaviour to modify people's views of us. -Cooley

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70

Social Exclusion

Being cut off from the rest of society.

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71

Impression Management

Goffman, an individual tries to 'put on a performance' when in public to try to show the bets version of themselves. When in private, the true self is exposed.

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72

Characteristics of The Underclass

High levels of illegitimacy anf lone parenthood Drunkenness Crime Work shy attitudes

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73

Labelling

Identity is influenced by other people's perceptions of us. People are labelled as their master status. -Becker

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74

Ethnicity

Shared culture of a social group which gives it's members a common identity. Includes culture and descent.

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75

Reflexive Self

An individual's identity is formed and developed through a process of reflecting on their own identity as they interact with others. Identity changes as they reflect deeper.

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76

Characteristics of Ethnic Minority Identities

Common descent Geographic origins History Language Religion Traditions Racism

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77

Grand Narratives/ Meta Narratives

Post modernists believe that all other theories are an outdated set of stories.

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78

Impairment

Diminishing of normal function in mind or body.

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79

Consumer Culture

A form of capitalism in which the economy is focused on buying and selling goods.

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80

Disability

When an impairment prevents people from carrying out day to day activities.

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81

Pick and Mix Identities

Individuals can pick and choose multiple identities, adopting whichever identities they like

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82

Medical Model of Disability

People are disabled becuase of biology.

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83

Shopping for Identities

Bauman- We hunt for different identities are are actively looking for different identities to adopt.

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84

Social Model of Disability

People are disabled due to the social construction of identity. People are disabled as they have been socially excluded from full participation in society.

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85

Blurring Boundaries

The differences between different cultures and identities are minimised significantly.

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86

Production and Identity

How people's occupation or lack of occupation influences their identity.

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87

Social Construction of Disability

Barriers are put into place which exclude disabled people. Society makes an impairment a disability.

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88

Sex

Used to refer to biological identity as male or female

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89

Social Aid

A device or aid which helps people with an impairment fit into society. e.g wheelchair or glasses.

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90

Gender

The distinctive qualities of men and women that are culturally and socially constructed.

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91

Learned Helplessness

Disabled people learn to be dependent on social aids and the able bodied.

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92

Heteronormativity

Heterosexuality is seen as normal as it links to reproduction.

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93

Masculinity

Possession of the qualities traditionally associated with men.

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94

Femininity

The possession of traits, (including biological and social traits)associated with being female.

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95

Nationality

Having citizenship of a nation state.

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96

Biological Determinist View

The view that males are naturally aggressive and females are naturally passive and expressive. The traits are due to innate characteristics. -Parsons

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97

National Identity

Feeling part of a larger community in the form of a nation.

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98

Social Constructionist View

Individuals can choose to behave in a certain way. We choose to behave more masculine or feminine. Different traits of masculinity and feminininty between cultures. -Mead, Stanley and Wise.

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99

Nationalism

A sense of pride in, and a commitment to, a nation.

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100

Negative Identity

Identifying themselves as what they are NOT rather than what they are.

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