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A form of behaviour which is thought of as 'normal' within a culture. -e.g: Leaving the house with clothes on.
Principle/Belief System -e.g : Life is precious and we should not kill anybody
Functionalism Marxism Feminism
When values are shared by a group.
Relative social or professional position/ social standing.
Status an individual is born into.
Status that is earned, based on the individuals own actions and behaviours.
A pattern of behaviour designated to an individual based on their commitments in society . E.g a student, a friend.
When different roles collide and cause conflict. For example the role of being a part-time worker may interfere with the role of a student.
The learning of norms and values of a culture of a society.
Learning new norms and values, for example when an individual enters a different society.
Agents of socialisation
The name that Functionalists give to establishments that socialise us. ▪Family ▪Education ▪Workplace ▪Media ▪Religion ▪Peers
Socialisation during the early years of childhood, mainly by the family. Children learn basic norms and values and begin to develop their individual identity and their social identity.
Socialisation that takes place outside of the family, leads to the development of secondary identities.
The hidden teaching of behaviour through rules, teacher behaviour etc. in education.
The subjects taught in the education system. This socialises people as in subjects such as RS, children learn about the norms and values of cultures.
A child/person is treated as an individual and therefore differently to others.
An individual is treated according to the same standards as everyone else in society.
Informal Social Control
Peer groups use sanctions to show approval/disapproval towards an action of an individual. There is NO real consequence of not obeying this type of social control.
Formal Social Control
Agents of socialisation such as the workplace and institutions such as the police force control an individual in this way. There ARE real consequences if individuals do not obey.
The increasing interconnectivity and global links between countries. Information is drawn from all over the world.
A society focused on economic wellbeing and business of the middle and upper classes.
A type of identity generally found among religions and other groups. An individual has chosen to identify with the group and adopt the identity.
Norms, values, customs and ways of life of a society or group within society.
The main culture within a society, which is accepted without opposition by the majority of people.
Smaller cultures/groups within a bigger culture.
A culture created by local communities. This generally includes active participation rather than passive consumption.
The outcome of cultures becoming more similar and 'Americanised' due to globalisation.
International Division of Labour
The world is economically interconnected through production and trade of goods.- E.g Nokia have headquarters in Finland but distribute products on a global scale.
Globalisation has made cultures of different countries become alike and merge into one uniform, (generally americanised) culture.
The culture belonging to the upper class and the most elite members of society.
Culture that is produced on a wide scale, aimed at the mass of ordinary people. It is produced for profit.
An insulting term used for mass/popular culture, suggesting its inferiority to high culture.
The way we see ourselves in relation to other people, it involves similarity and differences between people.
The dominant status/attribute of an individual that is seen before all other aspects of a persons identity.
A type of identity that you were born or socialised into.
A type of identity that people actively try to pursue.
People have several identities rather than just one.
This defines individuals in reation to social groups to which they belong and how they differ from other social groups.
How individuals define themselves. -e.g: Signature, Fingerprint, National Insurance Number.
An identity which is in some way demeaning or exludes people from full acceptance in society (e.g Muslim identity).
The feeling of being accepted and a part of society.
The feeling an individual experiences when they do not feel accepted/a part of society.
A primarily Marxist term, the act of influencing and controlling members of society.
Ruling Class Ideology
The values of the dominant/ruling class (upper).
Social Class Inequality
The unfair differences between the upper and lower classes.
Reproduction of Social Class Inequality
Constantly creating more social inequality between the classes.
Legitimacy of Social Class Inequality
Justifying the inequality in society as causing people to forget the exploitation they are being exposed to.
False Class Consciousness
The lower classes are misled to believe that they are NOT being exploited and that they are not fallint victim to the capitalism in society.
The marxist term for the upper class.
Giving up things in the present for the sake of greater gains in the future.
The marxist term for the lower class.
a nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity and the dominance of hegemonic masculinity. Male dominated society
Planning for the future.
Oakley's 4 Processes
Ways in which children are socialised by the family into their hegemonic gender role.
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers.
People who work for wages in manual labour jobs such as factory workers.
Ways in which parents encourage and discourage behaviour on the basis of how appropriate it is for the child's sex.
Features of Traditional Working Class
Close knit community Traditional gender roles Manual Labour Skill over academic Popular and folk culture
Ways in which parents direct children's interests into toys and hobbies appropriate for that sex.
Calling a child 'nicknames' specific to either the hegemonic male or hegemonic female gender role. e.g Soldier, Champ, Princess, Sweetie
Seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future
Present Time Orientation
Seeing the present as more important than the future
Children are encouraged to help with gender specific tasks. For example daughters may be encouraged to help eith domestic tasks while sons may be encouraged to help with manual labour.
Individuals are seen as ................ or puppets, where they simply accept norms and values with little input from the individual.
The belief that all events are determined in advance by fate and cannot be changed.
Your own sense of who you are.
Characteristics of The New Working Class
Privatised, home centred lifestyle Instrumental approach Women are likely to be in paid employment High levels of home ownership Emphasis on conspicuous consumption.
Looking Glass Self
Our identity is formed based on how we think others see us. We try to change ot behaviour to modify people's views of us. -Cooley
Being cut off from the rest of society.
Goffman, an individual tries to 'put on a performance' when in public to try to show the bets version of themselves. When in private, the true self is exposed.
Characteristics of The Underclass
High levels of illegitimacy anf lone parenthood Drunkenness Crime Work shy attitudes
Identity is influenced by other people's perceptions of us. People are labelled as their master status. -Becker
Shared culture of a social group which gives it's members a common identity. Includes culture and descent.
An individual's identity is formed and developed through a process of reflecting on their own identity as they interact with others. Identity changes as they reflect deeper.
Characteristics of Ethnic Minority Identities
Common descent Geographic origins History Language Religion Traditions Racism
Grand Narratives/ Meta Narratives
Post modernists believe that all other theories are an outdated set of stories.
Diminishing of normal function in mind or body.
A form of capitalism in which the economy is focused on buying and selling goods.
When an impairment prevents people from carrying out day to day activities.
Pick and Mix Identities
Individuals can pick and choose multiple identities, adopting whichever identities they like
Medical Model of Disability
People are disabled becuase of biology.
Shopping for Identities
Bauman- We hunt for different identities are are actively looking for different identities to adopt.
Social Model of Disability
People are disabled due to the social construction of identity. People are disabled as they have been socially excluded from full participation in society.