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100-year flood events

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1

100-year flood events

1%

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chemical processes

oxidation, dissolution, hydrolysis

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physical processes

exhumation, wegding, thermal expansion/contraction

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4

The three/four key components (ingredients) needed to produce soils are:

  1. Mineral matter (rock fragments)

  2. Organic matter (dead plant and animal material)

  3. Water

  4. Air (sometimes considered optional)

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5

In a sentence or two, identify and discuss in what ways latitude plays a role in determine where there is high or low precipiation rates.

regions located near the equator receive higher precipitation rates due to the intense solar radiation and the formation of convective clouds, while regions located closer to the poles receive lower precipitation rates due to the lower solar radiation and the predominance of cold air masses.

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Which of the following river variables tends to decrease as you move downstream?

flow competence

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flows

An arrow pointing towards a reservoir is a flow in. An arrow pointing away from a reservoir is a flow out.

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glacial depositional features:

moraines (end/terminal vs. lateral vs. medial), glacial erratics, dropstones,

drumlins, kettle lakes/holes, eskers

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glacial erosoin features:

u-shaped valleys, hanging valleys, cirques, horns, aretes,

glacial striations, glacial polish, roche moutonnees

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warm/wet-based glaciers

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cold/dry-based glaciers

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a horizon

the line at which the sky and Earth appear to meet

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ablation zone

area or zone of a glacier where snow and ice ablation exceed accumulation

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Accumulation zone

portion of the glacier above the snowline where new material is added to the glacier and the glacier grows (positive budget)

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Along a river's meander, where do you expect erosion to occur? Where do you expect deposition to occur? Why do you see this spatial pattern?

erosion is expected to occur along the outer bank of the meander bend, while deposition is expected to occur along the inner bank of the meander bend.

The outer bank of the meander bend experiences faster water flow, more erosion

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atmosphere

A mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon.

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atmospheric circulation cell

Large circuit of air driven by uneven solar heating and the Coriolis effect. Three circulation cells form in each hemisphere.

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atmospheric circulation cells

Hadley Cell vs. Ferrel Cell vs. Polar Cell

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b horizon

A soil horizon composed primarily of mineral material with very little organic matter

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Be able to calculate the mass balance and residence time of a reservoir if you're given the values of the flows in and flows out & the reservoir size

Mass_in - Mass_out = Change in mass

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Be able to use the recurrence interval equation to calculate the recurrence interval (or probability) of a flood event

Recurrence interval (T) = (N+1) / M

Where: N = the number of years in the record M = the rank of the flood event

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Biosphere

part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere

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c horizon

The least-weathered soil horizon, which always occurs beneath the B horizon and is similar to the parent material.

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calculate (and interpret) the mass balance and residence time of a soil profile given data on its thickness and production rate and erosion rate.

Production rate - Erosion rate = Change in mass

Residence time = Soil profile thickness / Erosion rate

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carbonates

Minerals that contain the elements carbon, oxygen, and one or more other metallic elements

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cirque glaciers

fill mountain top bowls

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clastic rock

a sedimentary rock formed when rock fragments are squeezed together- glued together

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cold front

A front where cold air moves in under a warm air mass.Cold fronts are usually associated with rapidly changing weather conditions, such as thunderstorms, heavy rain, or even tornadoes.

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Components of the water cycle

atmosphere, oceans, glaciers & ice sheets, groundwater, land surface + biosphere

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Concentration

percent (%), per mil (‰), parts per million (ppm)

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core

The central part of the earth below the mantle most dense

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crust

The thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle- least dense

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Cryosphere

Frozen water on earth

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deep water waves

waves that move in water deeper than one-half their wavelength

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depositional river features

Depositional river features are landforms created by the deposition of sediment carried by a river. point bars, deltas

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differentiate between a rock and mineral

Mineral is homogeneous while rocks are heterogenous and are made up of different minerals

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dissolution

the breaking up or dissolving of something into parts; disintegration

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e horizon

A zone of leaching, or eluviation, found in some acidic soils under the O horizon or, less often, the A horizon

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equilibrium line

the place on a glacier where snow accumulation and melting are in balance

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Erosion

Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)

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erosion Turbulent Fluids

particle will be put in motion (starting at rest) by energy in flow

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erosional river feature

Erosional river features are landforms created by the action of running water that erodes and removes material from the landscape. = v-shape, meanders,

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evapotranspiration

The combined amount of evaporation and transpiration

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exhumation

The process (involving uplift and erosion) that returns deeply buried rocks to the surface.

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ferrel cell

The Ferrel cell is a zone of stormy weather, with low pressure systems and frontal boundaries that separate warm and cold air masses. It is responsible for much of the mid-latitude weather, including the prevailing westerly winds, the jet stream, and the mid-latitude cyclones that bring rain and snow to many parts of the world.

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flow capacity

The maximum flow for an arc of the network. The flow capacity in one direction may not equal the flow capacity in the reverse direction.

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Flow Competence

Stream competence refers to the heaviest particles a stream can carry. Stream competence depends on stream velocity

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glacial abrasion

The result of the scraping of rocks that are imbedded in the ice of the glacier against the rock bed beneath the glacier.

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glacial accumulation

ablation

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glacial erosional features:

U-shaped valley, hanging valleys, cirques, horns, aretes, glacial striations, glacial polish, roche moutonnée, moraines (end/terminal vs. lateral vs. medial), glacial erratics, dropstones, drumlins, kettle lakes/holes

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glacial incorporation

rock is surrounded, frozen into the ice, and carried off

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glacial plucking

an erosional process by which rocks are pulled out of the ground by a glacier

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glacial sediments:

till vs. rock flour

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till

Till is an unsorted and unstratified sedimentary deposit of glacial origin, made up of a range of different-sized particles that have been transported and deposited by a glacier

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hadley cell

The Hadley cell is responsible for much of the Earth's tropical weather and the formation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) near the equator. It is also responsible for the formation of subtropical deserts such as the Sahara Desert and the Atacama Desert.

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headwater [landscape] features:

v-shaped valley, slot canyon, stair-step canyon

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headwater features:

v-shaped valleys, slot canyons, stair-step canyons

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headwaters

the source of a stream or river

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high pressure system

lower temperatures, clear skies, very small amount of precipitation

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high pressure systems

here air sinks slowly down to the ground and then spreads out to areas of lower pressure; brings clear skies and calm air or gentle breezes

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How does the amount of freshwater on Earth compared to the amount of salty water?

Over 97 percent of the earth's water is found in the oceans as salt water. Two percent of the earth's water is stored as fresh water in glaciers, ice caps, and snowy mountain ranges.

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hydrolysis

the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.

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Hydrosphere

All the water on earth

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ice caps

areas covered with thick ice year round

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ice sheets

enormous ice masses that flow in all directions from one or more centers and cover everything but the highest land

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igneous rock

rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies

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In what ways are hypotheses, theories, and laws similar?

evidence, exploratory,

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In what ways are sediments, soils, and regolith similar?In what ways are they different?

-are all types of earth materials that can be found on or near the surface of the Earth.

- composed of a mixture of mineral particles, organic matter, and water.

they differ in terms of their size and origin: sediments are loose particles that have been transported and deposited by water or wind, soils are formed by the weathering of rocks and organic matter, and regolith is the layer of loose material that covers solid rock on planetary surfaces.

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69

In what ways are the dissolution and hydrolysis forms of chemical weathering similar in terms of how they alter rocks? In what ways are these two forms of chemical weathering different?

Similarities:

  • Both involve the breakdown of minerals through chemical reactions with water.

  • Both can result in the alteration or dissolution of minerals in the rock.

  • Both can lead to the formation of new minerals as a result of the chemical reactions involved.

Differences:

  • Dissolution involves the direct reaction of minerals with water, which can lead to the complete dissolution of some minerals, while hydrolysis involves the reaction of minerals with water and other substances, such as acids or bases.

  • Hydrolysis typically involves the breakdown of silicate minerals, while dissolution can affect a wider range of minerals.

  • Hydrolysis can result in the formation of clay minerals, which can be more stable and resistant to weathering than the original minerals in the rock, while dissolution generally does not lead to the formation of new minerals.

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70

In what ways are the flows in a system (that passes a conserved quantity) related to the interactions in that system?

The interactions between components in a system determine how mass or energy is transferred between them. The rate and direction of flows in the system are determined by the strength and nature of these interactions. The type of interactions in the system can affect the efficiency of the flow of mass or energy. If the interactions between components change, this can affect the flows of mass or energy in the system. Any imbalances or disruptions in the flows of mass or energy can be an indication of problems or changes in the system's interactions. Understanding the relationship between flows and interactions can be useful in modeling and predicting the behavior of complex systems.

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Infiltration

the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil

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interactions of water cycle

precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, infiltration, percolation, groundwater flow, melting

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Lithosphere

the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.

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low pressure system

a weather system that usually brings cloudiness and stormy weather

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low pressure systems

a large weather system that surrounds a center of low pressure; air moves toward the lowest pressure, low pressure systems can become storms

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mantle

The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.

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metamorphic rock

rock that has been changed by heat and pressure

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mid-latitude westerlies

convection currents occur from the equator to ~30° latitude. some of the warm air meets cold polar air and low pressure forms at ~60° latitude. surface air moving north turns to the right.

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middle [landscape] features:

meanders, cut banks, point bars, cutoffs, oxbow lakes

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middle features

meanders, cut banks, point bars, cutoffs, oxbow lakes

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mountain glaciers

flow from high to low elevation in mountain settings

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mouth

end

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mouth [landscape] features:

delta

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o horizon

The organic horizon at the surface of many soils, composed of organic detritus in various stages of decomposition

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ocean density

Density in the ocean varies due to water temperature and salinity levels. Cold, salty water is most dense. Warm, less salty water is least dense.

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ocean salinity

35%

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oxidation

A chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust

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Percolation

The downward movement of water through soil and rock due to gravity.

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percolation

the process of a liquid slowly passing through a filter

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piedmont glaciers

spread out at the end of a valley

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polar cell

Cells of air circulation occurring between 60 degrees north and south and each pole.

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polar easterlies

Prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60degrees-90degrees latitude in both hemisphere.

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pressure systems

the different atmospheric pressure that affects weather

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prevailing winds

Global winds that blow constantly from the same direction

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primary gases

nitrogen and oxygen

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Probability of a flood

P = 1/R

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quantitative features of reservior

reservoir size, mass balance, and residence time

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recurrence interval (of a flood)

the average time that will pass between floods of a given discharge

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Regolith

the layer of rock and mineral fragments that nearly everywhere covers Earth's surface

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reservoir model

incorporates all the characteristics of the reservoir that are pertinent to its ability to store hydrocarbons and also to produce them.

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