Pathology Exam 3

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chambers of heart

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Tags and Description

cardiac disorders, endocrine system

217 Terms

1

chambers of heart

right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle

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2

valves of heart

tricuspid, mitral, pulmonary semilunar, aortic semiulnar

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3

coronary vessels

right coronary artery, left coronary artery

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4

right coronary artery

posterior descending artery, right marginal artery

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5

left coronary artery

left anterior descending artery, left circumflex artery

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6

layers of heart

pericardium, myocardium, ednocardium

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7

pericardium

fibrous layer, parietal layer, cavity, visceral layer

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8

myocardium

heart muscle

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9

endocardium

inner layer

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10

congenital heart defect

genetic, mostly idiopathic, detected prenatally

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11

malrotation defects

misplacement of a vessel

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12

expansion defects

hypoplastic chambers or vessels

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13

spetal defects

direct connection between atria or ventricles

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14

cardiac shunt

blood flow deviates from the normal pattern

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15

cardiac obstruction

occurs when embryonic vessels fail to expand properly

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16

cyanotic

blood shunts from right to left side of the heart

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17

acyanotic

blood shunts from left to right side of heart

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18

hypoplastic left hear syndrome (HLHS)

underdevelopment of the structures of the left side of the heart

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19

tetralogy of fallot

ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, overriding aorta, hypertrophy of the right ventricle

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20

ventricular septal defects (VSD)

opening in ventricular septum, blood from the left ventricle flow to the right ventricle

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21

atrial septal defects (ASD)

opening between the atria

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22

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

opening connecting fetal pulmonary artery to aorta doesn’t close

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23

coronary artery disease (CAD)

ASHD or IHD, lipid deposits form in medium and large coronary arteries

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24

stable plaque

thick fibrous cap protects lipid core of plaque from contact with blood

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25

myocardial ischemia

oxygen demand greater than oxygen supply, chest pain

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26

angina pectoris

pressure, heaviness, tightness in the middle of the chest or around shoulder/arm/throat/jaw

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27

myocardial infarction

heart attack, thrombus forms in coronary artery

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28

zone of infarction

dead/necrotic cells

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29

zone of hypoxic injury

middle layer

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30

zone of ischemia

outermost layer

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31

transmural infarction

necrotic area extends through entire heart wall

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32

subendocardial infarction

necrosis limited to innermost heart layers

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33

heart failure

incapable of maintaining cardiac output

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34

systolic heart failure

weak ventricle does not pump much blood

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35

diastolic heart failure

stiff, non-compliant ventricle does not fill adequately

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36

valvular hear disease

damage to 1 or more valves from congenital defects, infection, other diseases

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37

stenosis

valve does not fully open due to scars, calcification, or other damage

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38

insufficiency

valve does not fully close; blood regurgitates back into heart chamber where it was pumped from

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39

prolapse

valve bulges back into chamber

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40

cardiomyopathy

collection of diverse conditions of the heart muscles

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41

acute infections

result in inflammation of heart muscle

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42

myocarditis

inflammation of heart muscle

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43

rheumatic heart disease (RHD)

immune inflammatory reaction, valves are damaged

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44

streptococci primary infections

skin, pharynx, lungs, and heart valves

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45

streptococci secondary infections

sepsis, meningitis, bacterial endocarditis

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46

noninfectious consequences of streptococci

scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis

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47

manifestations of streptococci

murmur, heart failure, polyarthritis

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48

infective endocarditis

direct bacterial infection of heart wall

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49

manifestation of infective endocarditis

fever, leukocytosis, murmur, heart failure, emboli

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50

covid-19 infection

virus enters heart cell by binding to a specific receptor on myocardial cell surface

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51

cardiac complications of covid-19

myocarditis, destabilized & vulnerable plaque leading to MI, heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolism

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52

cytokine storm

excessive, uncontrolled immune response

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53

pericarditis

inflammation of pericardiump

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54

pericardial effusion

fluid accumulation around heart

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55

manifestations of pericarditis

pain, heart failure, cardiac tamponade

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56

cardiac tamponade

compression of heart

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57

endocrine system

series of glands and organs that produce and secrete hormones

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58

hormones

chemical messengers of body

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59

pancreas as exocrine organ

secretes pancreatic juice into ducts

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60

pancreas as endocrine organ

secrete pancreatic hormones directly into blood

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61

islets of longerhans

basic unit of pancreas

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62

alpha cells

secrete glucagon

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63

glucagon

stimulates liver output of glucose by converting glycogen to glucose and forming glucose from amino acids

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64

beta cells

secrete insulin

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65

insulin

stimulates cell uptake of glucose from blood

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66

acute pancreatitis

acute, reversible inflammation

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67

etiology of acute pancreatitis

alcohol abuse, gallstones, idiopathic, viral infections

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68

signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis

severe abdominal pain radiating through back

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69

diagnosis of acute pancreatitis

increased amylase and lipase in blood

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70

chronic pancreatitis

repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis

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71

etiology of chronic pancreatitis

alcohol abuse, gallstone, cystic fibrosis

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72

signs and symptoms of chronic pancreatitis

milder, upper abdominal pain radiating through bach

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73

diabetes mellitus

diabetes

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74

diabetes

disorder of insulin action or secretion

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75

etiology of type I diabetes

autoimune disorders

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76

type I diabetes

destruction of islets of langerhans and absolute lack of insulin

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etiology of type II diabetes

multifactorial disease

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78

type II diabetes

peripheral cell resistance to the effect of insulin and inadequate secretory response

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79

type I diabetes (cells)

destruction of beta cells

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80

type II diabetes (cells)

beta cells dysfunction

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81

prediabetes

high blood levels of insulin and high-normal fasting blood glucose levels

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82

secondary type II diabetes

pregnancy, drug therapy, endocrine diseases

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83

short term complications of diabetes

diabetic ketoacidosisl

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84

diabetic nephropathy

most common cause of renal failure in the US

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85

diabetic retinopathy

mixture of exudates, hemorrhages, small aneurysms, scarring

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86

diabetic neuropathy

nerve irritation, pain, abnormal sensation

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87

anterior pituitary hormones

adrenocorticotrophic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone

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88

posterior pituitary hormone

antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin

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89

thyroxine

T4

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90

triiodothyronine

T3

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91

euthyroid

normal blood levels of T4 and T3

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92

hyperthyroid

high thyroid hormone levels

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93

hypothyroid

low thyroid hormone levels

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94

adrenal cortex

under control of pituitary gland, secrets corticosteroids

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95

adrenal medulla

linked directly to and controlled by the autonomic nervous system; secretes catecholamines

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96

aldosterone

act on kidney to retain sodium and water, secrete potassium

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97

cortisol

increase glucose production; suppress immune reaction; limit inflammation to lessen the stress of injury

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98

sex steriods

estrogens and androgens

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99

epinephrine and norepinephrine

increase heart rate, dilates bronchioles and coronary arteries, constrict peripheral blood vessels

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100

parathyroid glands

4 glands, blood calcium controls output of parathyroid hormone

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