ap psych unit 7: personality and MESH

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personality

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187 Terms
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personality

a person’s unique set of consistent behavioral traits

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personality traits

durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations

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factor analysis

using statistical techniques to identify clusters of related information

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the five-factor model: openness

receptive to new ideas, creative, and broad in interests

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the five-factor model: conscientiousness

responsible, organized, disciplined, and achievement oriented

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the five-factor model: extraversion

outgoing, fun-loving, assertive, and talkative

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the five-factor model: agreeableness

warm, trusting, helpful, and easy-going

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the five-factor model: neuroticism

emotionally unstable, insecure, anxious, and moody

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central traits (allport)

approximately 7 main personality traits that are apparent others and consistent across diverse situations

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secondary traits (allport)

unlimited number of traits that only show up in specific situations

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source traits (cattell)

16 underlying personality traits that influence surface behavior

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surface traits (cattell)

the combination of source traits that make up our personality; others see these unlimited behaviors

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introversion (eysenck) *biological

quiet, reflective, and reserved

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extroversion (eysenck) *biological

active, sociable, and outgoing

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high neuroticism (eyesenck) *biological

moody, anxious, restless, and excitable

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low neuroticism (eyesenck) *biological

calm and even tempered

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high psychoticism (eyesenck) *biological

cruel, hostile, aggressive, self-centered, and impulsive

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low psychoticism (eyesenck) *biological

warm, caring, and concerned for others

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advantage of trait theories

gives terminology to describe behavior

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disadvantages of trait theories

  • doesn’t explain behavior

    • not unique situation for each person (barnum effect) (i.e. horoscopes are generally vague)

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focus of the psychodynamic perspective

unconscious and early childhood (repressive)

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freud’s psychoanalytic theory: id

instricts; basic impulses (sex and aggression); irrational, impulsive; unconscious; pleasure principle (initial gratitude)

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freud’s psychoanalytic theory: ego

reality; ration and mediates between id and superego urges; conscious and preconscious; reality principle; delays gratitude until id’s urges can be satisfied in a socially accepted way

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freud’s psychoanalytic theory: superego

morality; striving for protection; values, conscience; right vs. wrong; learned from parents and society

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defense mechanisms

unconscious reactions that protect a person from emotions like anxiety and guilt

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denial

refusal to recognize or acknowledge a threatening situation

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repression

“pushing” threatening/conflicting events or situations out of conscious memory; occurs with extreme trauma

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rationalization

making up acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior

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projection

placing one’s own unacceptable thoughts onto others; as if the thoughts belonged to them

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reaction formation

forming an emotional reaction/attitude that is the opposite of one’s threatening/acceptable/actual thoughts

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displacement

expressing feelings that would be threatening if directed at the real target onto a less threatening substitute target.

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regression

falling back on childlike/old patterns as a way of coping with stressful situations

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identification

trying to become like someone else to deal with one’s anxiety

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compensation (substitution)

trying to make up for areas in which a lack is perceived by becoming superior in some other area

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sublimation

turning socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior

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intellectualization

removing emotions from a situation; very logical thinking

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psychosexual stages of development

developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leaves a mark on adult personality; each stage corresponds with a specific area

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fixation

a preoccupation with a particular source of pleasure; if a stage is not resolved successfully, a fixation may result

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oral stage (0-1 y/o)

  • source of pleasure - mouth

  • focus - breastfeeding/weaning to determine if successful resolution

  • fixation - biting, chewing, sarcasm, and smoking

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anal stage (0-1 y/o)

  • source of pleasure - bowel and bladder control

    • focus - potty training to determine if successful resolution

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anal retentive (too early/harsh)

organized, clean, and likes control

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anal expulsive (too late/relax)

messy, disorganized, and impulsive

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phallic stage (3-5 y/o)

  • source of pleasure - genitals

  • fixation - mommy/daddy issues; trouble finding a mate

  • use reaction formation and identification and cling to the same sex parent; superego morals are formed

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oedipus complex (boys)

little boys desire mommy and want to kill daddy

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electra complex (girls)

little girls desire daddy and want to kill mommy; girls develop penis envy

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latency stage (5 y/o-adolenscence)

  • sexual impulses are dormant; nothing really happens

  • most interaction occurs with same-sex children

  • focus is social skills

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genital stage (adolescence +)

  • sexual desires and earlier fixations reappear

    • sexual energies are channeled toward the opposite sex rather than oneself

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personal unconscious (jung)

house materials that are not within one’s conscious awareness because it has been repressed/forgotten; traditional view of unconsciousness

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collective unconscious (jung)

shared unconscious; storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from ancestral past; shared by the whole human race; i.e. all snakes are harmful because of the bible

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archetypes (jung)

symbols of collective unconscious; ancestral memories; emotionally charged images and thoughts form that have universal meaning (dream analysis); i.e. heroes, villains, wise old man

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persona (jung)

mask to hide true self; being fake

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striving for superiority (overcoming feelings of inferiority) (adler)

inferior is the belief that one is less than others in some way (physically, socially, intellectually); as a result, we use compensation which drives us to excel and strive for superiority in other areas of our life

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karen horney

  • neo-freudian that later countered freud’s “penis envy” with womb envy

  • while freud argued personality differences in gender were biological, horney argued they were societal/cultural

    • different personalities were a representation of different ways of attaining love and affection

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object relations

early relationships between infants and significant objects (especially people) shape personality

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advantages of psychodynamic perspectives

  1. unconscious forces do influence behavior

  2. internal conflicts do exist

  3. early childhood experiences do influence adult behavior

  4. people do use defense mechanisms

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disadvantages of psychodynamic perspectives

  1. lacks empirical evidence (all)

  2. unrepresentative samples (freud)

  3. inaccurate reporting of data and method of conducting research had leading questions (freud)

  4. ignores consciousness (all)

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focus of cognitive-behavioral perspectives

cognitive processes (thinking, judging) in the development of personality; contribute to learned behaviors that are central to one’s personality

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how is personality developed according to B.F. skinner’s behaviorism?

through rewards and punishments

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reciprocal determinism (bandura)

thoughts and cognition, behaviors, and environment factors all interact and influence each other

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self efficacy (bandura)

one’s beliefs about their ability to succeed (produce expected outcomes); can be high/low, general/specific situation

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walter mischel’s theories

focused on the importance of the situation in determining behavior

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the person-situation controversy (mischel)

identified certain “person variables” and “situational variables” in guiding behavior

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locus of control (rotter)

behavior is determined by the extent to which you believe your actions impact your environment

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external LOC (rotter)

no, my behaviors do not impact my environment

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internal LOC (rotter)

yes, my behaviors do impact my environment

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advantages of cognitive-behavioral perspectives

  1. empirical evidence

  2. objective

  3. emphasizes the role of the environment and cognitive processes

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disadvantages of cognitive-behavioral perspectives

  1. deemphasizes free will in behavior (too much emphasis on environment)

  2. ignores unconscious and biological influences

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focus of humanistic perspectives

unique qualities in humans; freedom to choose destiny and potential for personal growth; be the best that they can be

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self-concept (rogers)

“self schema”; collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, human qualities, and typical behavior; subjective

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actual self (rogers)

who we are

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ideal self (rogers)

who we wish we were

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ought self (rogers)

who "they” say we should be

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conditions of worth (rogers)

the development of the self is determined by the extent to which parents make their love conditional; positive self-concept if based on unconditional love

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abraham maslow’s hierarchy of needs (premise)

some needs are more important than others; basic needs first unless some people deny them for self-transcendent reasons; i.e. hunger strike

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psychological (maslow)

need to satisfy hunger and thirst

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safety (maslow)

need to feel world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable

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belongingness (maslow)

need to love and be loved; belong and accepted; avoid loneliness and separation

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esteem (maslow)

need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and others respect

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self actualization (maslow)

the need to fulfill one’s potential; be the best you can be

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self-transcendence (maslow)

need to find meaning and identity beyond the self

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growth orientation (maslow)

focuses on what you have

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deficiency orientation (maslow)

focusing on what’s missing

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how does growth orientation relate to maslow’s hierarchy?

those with growth orientation are healthier and more likey to reach self-actualization

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advantages of humanistic perspectives

  1. group therapies

  2. child-rearing and relationships in general

  3. free will to change

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disadvantages of humanistic perspectives

  1. poor testability and inadequate evidence

  2. unrealistic view of human nature (too positive)

  3. confined to western, individualistic cultures

  4. ignores biological, social learning, and unconscious factors

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individualism

putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group membership

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collectivism

putting group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the group one belongs to

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objective personality tests (self-report inventories)

T/F, Y/N, MC questions/statements that can be scored

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MMPI

minnesota multiphasic personality inventory; more widely used, used in diagnosis; 566 T/F questions; 10 clinical scales and 4 validity scales

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16PF (cattell) and NEO-PI-R (costa & mccrae) (big 5)

NEO-PI compares results from private and public versions

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MBTI

myer's-briggs type indicator; objective test; gives 4 letters = personality type

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advantage of objective tests

objective

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disadvantages of objective tests

  1. self report data

  2. social desirability bias

  3. response sets

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projective personality tests

participants respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subject’s unconscious needs, feelings, and personality traits that can be analyzed in many different ways

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thematic apperception test (TAT)

tell the story of a picture

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rorschach inkblot test

shown a series of inkblots; respond to what you see

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advantages of projective personality tests

  1. not apparent to participants

  2. insight to unconscious

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disadvantages of projective personality tests

  1. little evidence

  2. may not be accurate

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motivation

the factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior

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sources of motivation: biological factors

food, water, sleep, sex, temperature, and physiological factors (drugs/hormones); internal

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