ap psych unit 1

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empiricism

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164 Terms

1

empiricism

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

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functionalism

a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish

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experimental psychology

the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

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behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

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5

humanistic psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth

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cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

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nature-nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

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natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival with most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

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9

level of analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

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10

biopsychosocial approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

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biological psychology

a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes

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psychodynamic psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

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behavioral psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

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cognitive psychology

the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatin

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15

social-cultural psychology

the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

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psychometrics

the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits

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developmental psychology

the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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educational psychology

the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning

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personality psychology

the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting

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social psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

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applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

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22

industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

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human factors psychology

the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments

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counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

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clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

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psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

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27

Charles Darwin

English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

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Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).

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29

William James

founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment

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30

Jean Piaget

Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation

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31

Wilhelm Wundt

german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879

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Mary Whiton Calkins

first female president of the APA (1905); a student of William James; denied the PhD she earned from Harvard because of her sex (later, posthumously, it was granted to her)

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Margaret Floy Washburn

First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd president of the APA (1921)

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John B. Watson

founder of behaviorism

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B. F. Skinner

American psychologist who championed behaviorism and studied operant conditioning

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36

Carl Rogers

1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person

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positive psychology

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive

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community psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups

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39

validity

the extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to do

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40

hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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operational definition

A statement of the procedures used to define research variables that is specific and allows research to be replicated

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42

replication

replicate the original study in attempt to yield similar results

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43

case study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

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44

survey

A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, that provides researchers with information about how people think and act.

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population

the whole group that you want to study and describe

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random sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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correlation

A measure of the relationship between two variables

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48

scatterplot

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables.

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49

experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one factor to observe the effect on another; the only way to determine causality

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random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

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double-blind study

An experiment in which neither the participant nor the researcher knows whether the participant has received the treatment or the placebo

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experimental group

A subject or group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the factor or condition being tested.

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control group

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

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independent variable

(statistics) a variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables

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confounding variable

A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.

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dependent variable

the outcome factor the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variables --what you are measuring (ex. obesity rates)

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57

mode

Measure of central tendency that uses most frequently occurring score.

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mean

arithmetic average

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59

median

A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of a list of values is the value appearing at the center of a sorted version of the list - or the mean of the two central values if the list contains an even number of values.

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range

Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.

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normal curve

the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.

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62

statistical significance

A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance (p-value of less than 0.05)

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informed consent

A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail.

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debriefing

A verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study

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sample

A part of the population you are studying.

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66

positive correlation

two variable rise and fall together, such as height and weight

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negative correlation

variables are related inversely, one goes up and the other goes down, such as inner speech and psychological distress

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skewed disribution

a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value

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positive skew

high outlier

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70

negative skew

low outlier

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71

ethics in research

informed consent; protection from harm/discomfort; maintain confidentiality; debriefing

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72

structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

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Wilhelm Wundt

father of psychology, structuralism

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Sigmund Freud

founder of psychoanalysis

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75

biopsychological approach

an approach that views behavior as strongly influenced by physiological functions such as hormones and the activity of the nervous system

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evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

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77

sociocultural perspective

A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior such as race, sex, and culture

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Humanistic Perspective

stresses the human capacity for self-fulfillment and the importance of consciousness, self-awareness, and the capacity to make choices

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Behavioral/Learning Perspective

Personal experience and reinforcement guide individual development

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80

cognitive perspective

A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior

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81

psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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82

natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

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83

naturalistic observation

a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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84

Histogram

a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

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85

introspection

first began in laboratory set up by Wilhelm Wundt; process of reporting on one's own conscious mental experiences

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86

structuralism

idea proposed by Wundt that the mind operates by combining subjective emotions and objective sensations; aimed to uncover the basic structures that make up mind and thought

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87

functionalism

theory presented by William James; emphasizes adaptiveness of the mental or behavioral processes

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88

Wilhelm Wundt

set up first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879; known for training subjects in introspection and for his theory of structuralism

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89

Margaret Floy Washburn

first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology

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90

William James

published The Principles of Psychology, the science's first textbook; responsible for theory of functionalism

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91

Mary Whiton Calkins

studied with William James and went on to become president of the American Psychological Association

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92

G. Stanley Hall

student of William James who pioneered he study of child development and was the first president of the APA

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93

Gestalt psychology

theory that states that the whole experience is often more than just the sum of the parts, because the way we experience the world is more than just an accumulation of various perceptual experiences; relatively little influence on current psychology

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94

Max Wertheimer

Gestalt psychologist who argued against dividing human thought and behavior into discrete structures

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95

psychoanalysis

theory that states a part of our mind over which we do not have conscious control determines, in part, how we think and behave

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Sigmund Freud

revolutionized psychology with his psychoanalytic theory; believed the unconscious mind must be examined through dream analysis, word association, and other psychoanalytic therapy techniques; criticized for being unscientific and creating unverifiable theories

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John Watson

psychologist who believed the science must limit itself to observable phenomena; wanted to establish behaviorism as the dominant paradigm of psychology

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98

B. F. Skinner

behaviorist who expanded the basic ideas of behaviorism to include the idea of reinforcement- environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses

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99

humanism

modern psychological viewpoint that stresses individual choice and free will; suggests that we choose most of our behaviors and these choices are guided by physiological, emotional or spiritual needs; not easily tested by the scientific method; includes theorists Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

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biopsychology

modern psychological perspective that explains human thought and behavior strictly in terms of biological processes (e.g. genes, hormones, and neurotransmitters)

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