Medical Terminology - Chapter 1 and 2

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133 Terms

1

ventral

refers to the front, or belly side, of the organ or body

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2

dorsal

refers to the back of the organ or body

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3

anterior

situated in front of or directed toward the front

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4

posterior

situated behind or at the back

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5

superior

uppermost, above, or toward the head

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6

inferior

lowermost, below, or toward the feet

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7

cephalic

toward the head

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8

caudal

toward the lower part of the body

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9

proximal

situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure

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10

distal

situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure

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11

medial

the direction toward, or nearer, the midline

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12

lateral

the direction toward, or nearer, the side of the body, away from the midline

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13

vertical plane

an up-and-down plane that is a right angle to the horizon

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14

sagittal plane

a vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions

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15

midsagittal plane

midline, divides the body into equal left and right halves

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16

frontal plane

a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions

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17

horizontal plane

a flat crosswise plane, such as the horizon

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18

transverse plane

a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions

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19

anter/o

before, in front

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20

caud/o

lower part of body, tail

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21

poster/o

behind, toward the back

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22

-stasis, -static

control, maintenance of a constant level

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23

-al

pertaining to

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24

-algia

pain, suffering

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25

appendic/o

appendix

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26

arteri/o

artery

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27

arthr/o

joint

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28

ather/o

plaque, fatty substance

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29

cardi/o

heart

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30

chondr/o

cartilage

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31

col/o

colon

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32

-dynia

pain

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33

dys-

bad, painful, difficult

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34

-ectomy

surgical removal

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35

enter/o

small intestine

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36

gastr/o

stomach

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37

-graphy

process of recording

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38

hem/o

blood

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39

hyper-

excessive

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40

hypo-

under, below

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41

-ic

pertaining to

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42

-itis

inflammation of

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43

laryng/o

larynx

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44

-malacia

abnormal softening

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45

-megaly

enlargement

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46

myc/o

fungus

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47

myel/o

spinal cord, bone marrow

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48

my/o

muscle

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49

-necrosis

tissue death

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50

nephr/o

kidney

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51

neur/o

nerve

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52

-ologist

specialist

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53

-ology

study of

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54

-osis

abnormal condition

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55

oste/o

bone

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56

ot/o

ear

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57

-otomy

surgical incision

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58

-pathy

disease

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59

peri-

surrounding

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60

-plasty

surgical repair

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61

poly-

many

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62

py/o

pus

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63

rhin/o

nose

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64

-rrhage

bleeding, abnormal excessive fluid discharge

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65

-rraphy

to suture or stitch

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66

-rrhea

flow, discharge

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67

-rrhexis

rupture

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68

-sclerosis

abnormal hardening

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69

-scopy

visual examination

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70

-stenosis

abnormal narrowing

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71

sub-

under, below

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72

supra-

above, upper, excessive

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73

eu-

good, normal

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74

dys-

bad, painful, difficult

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75

inter-

between

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76

intra-

within

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77

iso-

equal

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78

mal-

bad

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79

mes-

middle

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80

meta-

after

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81

pan-, pant(o)

all, entire

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82

per-

through

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83

pro-

before

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84

sub-

under, less than, inferior

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85

super-

more than, above, superior

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86

supra-

above, upper

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87

9 regions of the abdomen

right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right iliac, hypogastric, left iliac

<p>right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right iliac, hypogastric, left iliac</p>
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88

4 quadrants

right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant

<p>right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant</p>
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89

dorsal cavity

located along the back of the body and head and contains organs of nervous system that coordinate body functions (divided into two portions: cranial, spinal)

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90

cranial cavity

pertaining to the skull

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91

spinal cavity

located in the spinal cord, surrounds and protects

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92

ventral cavity

located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that sustain homeostasis

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93

thoracic cavity

chest cavity, thorax, surrounds and protects heart and lungs

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94

abdominal cavity

contains major organs of digestion

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95

pelvic cavity

the space formed by the hip bones and contains the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems

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96

peritoneum

a multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity

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97

parietal peritoneum

the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall

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98

mesentery

a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall

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99

visceral peritoneum

the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity

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100

retroperitoneal

located behind the peritoneum

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