chemistry - a level organic

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212 Terms

1

ane

Alkane suffix

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2

ene

Alkene suffix

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3

yne

Alkyne suffix

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4

Halo

Halogenoalkanes prefix

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5

oic acid

Carboxylic acid suffix

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6

anhydride

Anhydride suffix

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7

oate

Ester suffix

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8

oyl chloride

Acyl chloride suffix

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9

amide

Amide suffix

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10

nitrile

Nitrile suffix

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11

al

Aldehyde suffix

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12

one

Ketone suffix

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13

ol

Alcohol suffix

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14

Hydroxy

Alcohol prefix

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15

amine

Amine suffix

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16

Alkane

ane

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17

Alkene

ene

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18

Alkyne

yne

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19

Halogenoalkane

halo

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20

Carboxylic acid

oic acid

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21

Ester

oate

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22

Isomer

Molecules with the same molecular formula but have different molecular structures or a different arrangement of atoms in space

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23

Stereoisomerism

Two or more compounds have the same structural formula but they differ in the arrangement of bonds in space

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24

Optical isomerism

Occurs when four different substituents are bonded to one carbon atom resulting in two isomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of one another

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25

Optical isomer

Pairs of molecules that are non-superimposable mirror images

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26

Chiral

Handed

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27

Chiral

A molecule that exists in two mirror image forms that are not superimposable

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28

Enantiomer

One of a pair of non-superimposable mirror image isomers

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29

Chiral centre (asymmetric carbon atom)

An atom to which four different atoms or groups are bonded. The presence of such an atom causes the parent molecule to exist as a pair of non-superimposable mirror images.

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30

Polarimeter

Measures optical rotation

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31

Racemate

A mixture of equal amounts of two optical isomers of a chiral compound, it's optically inactive

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32

Carbonyl group

RCHO

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33

Acid derivative

An organic compound related to a carboxylic acid of formula RCOZ, where Z = —Cl, —NHR, —OR or —OCOR.

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34

Fatty acid

A long chain carboxylic acid

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35

Triglyceride

an ester formed between glycerol and three fatty acid molecules

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36

Acylation

The process by which the acyl group is introduced into another molecule

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37

Addition-elimination reactions

Reactions between nucleophiles and acyl chlorides

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38

Arenes

Hydrocarbons based on benzene

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39

H2SO4 + NHO3 --> (NO2)+ + (H2SO4)- + H2O

Generation of nitronium ion electrophile

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40

Nitronium ion

NO2+

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41

Inductive effect

The electronreleasing effect of alkyl groups such as -CH3 or -C2H5

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42

Condensation reaction

A chemical reaction in which two molecules react together and a small molecule, often water or hydrogen chloride, is eliminated

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43

Zwitterion

An ion that has both a permanent positive and negative charge, though the overall charge of the ion is neutral

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44

Protonated

Describes an atom, molecule or ion to which a proton (H+ ion) has been added

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45

Deprotonated

Describes an atom, molecule or ion to which a proton (H+ ion) has been lost

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46

Amide linkage

When the amine group of one amino acid reacts with the carboxylic acid group of another

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47

Polypeptide

Molecules containing up to about 50 amino acids

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48

Protein

Molecules containing more than 50 amino acids

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49

Peptide

Compounds formed by the linkage of amino acids

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50

Dipeptide

A peptide with two amino acids

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51

Primary structure

The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

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52

Secondary structure

A protein may form am alpha helix or beta pleated sheet

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53

Tertiary structure

The alpha helix or beta pleated sheet may fold into a 3D shape

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54

Enzyme

A protein based catalyst found in living things

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55

Stereospecific

The fact that enzymes can only catalyse reactions of one of the pair of enantiomers

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56

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

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57

Nucleotide

The monomer for which DNA is made up of

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58

Nucleotide

Made up of three parts- a phosphate, a sugar and a base

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59

Replication

Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

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60

Cisplatin

A cancer treatment

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61

Target molecule

The compound that the chemist is attempting to prepare by organic synthesis

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62

Alkene to Alkane

H2, Ni catalyst, 150 degrees

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63

Alkene to Haloalkane

HX or X2

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64

Alkene to Alcohol

Dilute H3PO4

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65

Alkane to Haloalkane

X2, UV light

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66

Haloalkane to Alkene

KOH (Reflux)

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67

Haloalkane to Alcohol

KOH (Reflux)

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68

Haloalkane to Nitrile

KCN (Reflux)

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69

Haloalkane to 1 Amine

NH3

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70

Nitrile to 1 Amine

LiAlH (ether)

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71

1 Amine to 2 Amide

Acyl Chloride

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72

1 Amine to 2 Amine

RX

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73

2 Amine to 3 Amine

RX

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74

3 Amine to 4 Amine Salt

RX

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75

Alcohol to Carboxylic Acid

1 Alcohol

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76

Alcohol to Ester

Carboxylic acid or Cr2O72- (Reflux)

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77

Alcohol to Aldehyde

1 Alcohol

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78

Alcohol to Ketone

2 Alcohol

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79

Alcohol to Alkene

conc. H2SO4

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80

Acid Anhydride to 2 Amide

1 Amine

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81

Acid Anhydride to Carboxylic Acid

H2O

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82

Acid Anhydride to 1 Amide

conc. NH3

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83

Carboxylic acid to Ester

Alcohol

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84

1 Amide to Carboxylic Acid

H2O / H+

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85

Acyl Chloride to 1 Amide

NH3

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86

Acyl Chloride to Carboxylic Acid

H20

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87

Acyl Chloride to Ester

Alcohol

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88

Ester to Carboxylic Acid

H20 / H+

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89

Aldehyde to Carboxylic Acid

H+/Cr2O72- (Reflux)

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90

Aldehyde to Alcohol

NaBH4

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91

Reduction

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92

Aldehyde to Hydroxynitrile

KCN / dilute H2SO4

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93

Nucleophilic addition

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94

Ketone to Hydroxynitrile

KCN / dilute H2SO4

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95

Nucleophilic addition

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96

Ketone to Alcohol

NabH4

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97

Reduction

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98

Benzene to Bromobenzene

Br2 / FeBr3 catalyst

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99

Electrophilic substitution

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100

Benzene to Nitrobenzene

HNO3 / H2SO4

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