Rad Tech 2

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The link has been demonstrated in animal studies, AND Increased risk to humans cannot be predicted with respect to an individual.

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1

The link has been demonstrated in animal studies, AND Increased risk to humans cannot be predicted with respect to an individual.

Which of the following statements are correct regarding the link between radiation dose and genetic effects?

  1. The link has been demonstrated in human studies

  2. The link has been demonstrated in animal studies.

  3. Increased risk to humans cannot be predicted with respect to an individual.

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2

Increase kVp by 30%

Which of the following changes in kilovoltage (kVp) will result in the greatest reduction of patient dose, when milliampere-seconds (mAs) is adjusted to compensate for the change?

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3

Faster-speed IR system

Which of the following image receptor (IR) system speeds will result in the lowest patient dose?

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4

Reduce the likelihood of genetic effects

What is the primary purpose of using gonad shields during radiography?

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5

Contact and Shadow

Which of the following are types of gonad shields?

  1. Aperture

  2. Contact

  3. Shadow

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6

When the gonads are within 5 cm of the radiation field

When should gonad shielding be used?

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7

repeat exposures

The greatest cause of unnecessary radiation to patients that can be controlled by the limited operator is:

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clearly instructing patients

The limited operator can reduce repeat exposures by:

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9

It limits the radiation field to the area of interest

How does x-ray beam restriction minimize patient exposure?

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10

Collimator

What is the device that allows the limited operator to vary the size of the radiation field?

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11

Removes longer-wavelength photons

How does filtration reduce patient exposure?

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12

2.5 mm A1 equiv

What is the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) recommendation for the amount of total filtration?

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13

Time, distance, and shielding

What are the three principal methods used to protect limited operators from unnecessary radiation exposure?

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14

Shadow- patient

Which of the following is NOT a type of personnel radiation shielding?

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15

Scattered radiation from the patient

Personnel shielding must be worn on the rare occasion during which limited operator may need to remain in the radiographic room during an exposure to assist the patient in maintaining the proper position. What is the source of the greatest radiation hazard under this circumstance?

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Leakage radiation- tube

What is the term for radiation that escapes from the x-ray tube housing?

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17

They are considered occupationally exposed individuals

Why are limited operators prohibited from activities that result in direct exposure to the primary x-ray beam?

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18

the operator should maximize the distance from the source during an exposure

Distance, as a method used to limit operator exposure, means that:

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19

Scatter radiation

Shielding worn for personnel protection is designed to attenuate what source of exposure?

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20

TLD

Which of the following is an acronym for a common type of personnel dosimeter?

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21

The badge should be worn in the region of the collar on the anterior surface of the body and outside the lead apron, if worn.

What is the recommended placement for a personnel dosimeter on the body of the limited operator?

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22

5.0 rem (0.05 Sv)

What is the NCRP recommended annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure?

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23

0.05 rem (0.0005 Sv)

What is the NCRP recommended monthly effective (or equivalent) dose limit to the fetus for a pregnant worker?

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24

10%

Radiation monitoring of personnel is required when what percentage of the ANNUAL occupational effective dose limit is likely to be received?

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25

Roentgen

What is the conventional (British system) radiation unit to express radiation intensity in the air?

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26

rem

The conventional (British system) unit commonly used to report occupational dose to radiation workers in the United States is the:

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27

Rad

What is the conventional (British system) radiation unit of absorbed dose?

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28

Embryonic tissue cells

According to the Bergonie-Tribondeau law, which of the following types of cells are most radiosensitive?

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29

Photoelectric

Which type of x-ray photon interaction with the body is primarily responsible for the radiation dose absorbed by the patient?

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30

0.5 mm

What is the NCRP (report #102) recommendation for lead equivalency of aprons used for personnel protection?

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31

Reddening of the skin caused by a high radiation dose.

What is erythema, as it relates to radiation exposure?

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32

ALARA- as low as reasonably achievable

What is the guiding philosophy of radiation protection?

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33

There is an increased risk of cancer, leukemia, birth defects and cataracts.

Which of the following statements reflects current scientific opinion regarding the effects of diagnostic levels of ionizing radiation?

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34

Using a faster-speed class imaging system and Increasing the kVp using the 15% rule, while decreasing the mAs to compensate.

Which of the following changes will decrease patient dose?

  1. Using a faster-speed class imaging system

  2. Increasing the kVp using the 15% rule, while decreasing the mAs to compensate.

  3. Increasing the grid ratio to a 16:1 ratio

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35

Exceeds 5 rad to the uterus and occurs within the first trimester of pregnancy

When radiation exposure occurs during pregnancy, the greatest risk of birth defects occurs when the exposure:

  1. Exceeds 5 rad to the uterus

  2. occurs within the first trimester of pregnancy

  3. occurs within the third trimester of pregnancy.

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36

They occur throughout the diagnostic radiology kVp range of 40 to 125 kVp.

At what kVp levels do Compton interactions occur?

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37

the patient

What is the principal source of scatter radiation in radiography?

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38

A target, a vacuum, and electron source, and a high potential difference

What are the four essential elements required for x-ray production?

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39

Bremsstrahlung radiation

The greatest portion of the x-ray beam is made up of:

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40

Kilovoltage (kVp)

The penetrating power of the x-ray beam is controlled by varying the:

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41

kVp selection

which of the following functions involve the autotransformer? a. kvp selection b. ma selection c. exposure time selection d. automatic exposure control

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42

Photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate

What is the IR that is used for compound radiograpghy?

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43

high- frequency

Nearly all new x-ray machines manufactured today use ___________________ generators.

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44

tungsten

The target of the x-ray tube is made of:

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45

+- 2% of SID

What is the standard control limit for the field light to radiation field alignment test?

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46

Within 1 degree of perpendicular

What is the standard control limit for the beam (central ray) alignment test?

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47

Every 6 months

How often should lead aprons and gloves be checked for cracks or holes?

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48

Protect the cassette before and after exposure

How can detector fog be prevented when using computed radiography cassettes?

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49

Increased mA, Increased exposure time, and Increased kVp

Which of the following will result in increased receptor exposure?

  1. Increased mA

  2. Increased exposure time

  3. Increased kVp

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50

Decrease the mAs

If the radiographic image is overexposed, which of the following changes in exposure factors should be used to correct the problem?

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51

inverse square law

The relationship between SID and beam intensity is expressed in the:

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52

Receptor exposure, contrast, spatial resolution, and distortion

What are the four primary factors of radiographic quality?

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53

kVp

Contrast is primarily controlled by altering the:

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54

decreased contrast

Scatter radiation fog effects radiogrpahic quality by causing:

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55

decreased spatial resolution

A change from the small focal spot to the large focal spot will result in:

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56

increased magnification

An increase in object-image receptor distance (OID) will result in:

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spatial resolution

Motion of the patient, the tube, or the IR during the exposure will result in decreased:

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58

Finely speckled or grainy areas

What does quantum mottle (noise) look like on a radiographic image?

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59

the mAs being set too low

Quantum mottle with a digital imaging system is caused by:

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60

Increase in SID and decrease in focal spot size

Which of the following will increase spatial resolution?

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Highly detailed, with very little quantum mottle

What is the appearance of a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) image?

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62

Standing on edge

What is the proper method for storing unopened boxes of x-ray film?

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63

Changes the exposed silver halide crystals into black, metallic silver

Which of the following describe the action of the developer in an automatic film processor?

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proper radiographic collimation

During digital image processing, electronic masking should NOT be used to replace:

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65

Developing solution -film

Which of the following is NOT a component of a computed radiography plate reader?

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66

low room light level

What conditions are most important for optimum viewing of radiographic images?

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67

artificats

Marks, exposures, or images on a radiograph that are not a part of the intended image are called:

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scatter radiation fog increases

If the amount of irradiated tissue increases, what happens to scatter radiation fog?

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69

use a grid or Bucky

The most effective and practical way to reduce scatter radiation fog on a radiograph is to:

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70

12 cm

As a general rule, a grid should be employed when the part thickness is greater than:

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71

thickness in centimeters

Technique charts are based on patient part measurements obtained using an x-ray caliper and are expressed as:

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72

Multiple myeloma, Emphysema, and Osteoporosis

Which of the following pathologic conditions would require a decrease in exposure?

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73

The image will be lighter on the anode end than on the cathode end

How will the anode heel effect, if present, be seen on an image?

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74

Distortion

Which radiographic quality factor is most affected by angulation of the central ray, part, or IR?

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75

a sticker with the correct information should be applied to the hard-copy image

What is the recommendation for a hard-copy image that is mislabeled?

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76

IR exposure with an mAs less than needed for the particular anatomic structures

Which of the following will result in a screen or film image with low density?

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77

IR exposure with a kVp higher than needed for the particular anatomic structures

Which of the following will result in a screen or film image with low contrast?

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78

Evaluate the exposure index value

When viewing a digital image on a monitor, how do you determine if the proper mAs was selected?

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79

Patient motion (if they move you lose)

Which of the following will result in an image with poor spatial resolution?

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80

IR exposure at an OID greater than recommended for a particular body part

Which of the following will result in an image with excessive magnification of image structures?

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81

Improper central ray angulation for the selected radiographic projection

Which of the following will result in an image with excessive distortion of anatomic structures?

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82

Recorded detail or spatial resolution

Poor film or screen contact is seen on a radiograph as a decrease in what radiographic quality factor?

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83

Static artifact

Which screen film image artifact looks like lightning?

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84

A limited operator talk to his or her friend during lunch about a patient's imaging procedure

Which of the following would be a violation of patient confidentially?

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85

Informed consent may be revoked at any time, and the patient must be legally competent to sign.

Which of the following are true regarding informed consent?

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86

doctrine of respondeat superior

A limited operator innocently commits an error as a result of following the orders of his or her employer, a physician. The employer may be held responsible according to the:

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87

received a response from the listener that demonstrates comprehension

Communication has been "validated" when the speaker has:

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88

speaking

Which of the following is NOT a form of non-verbal communication?

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89

Mrs. Dunbar

Mrs. Elizabeth Dunbar is 86 years old and a bit confused. She is most likely to respond appropriately if you address her as:

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90

Use a broad stance, and carry heavy objects close to your body.

Which of the following are correct statements of proper body mechanics?

  1. Use a broad stance

  2. Turn and lift using your back muscles

  3. Carry heavy objects close to your body

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91

Indirect contact of fomite transmission

What type of disease transmission is possible when the limited operator does not clean the Bucky device after performing an examination on a patient with influenza?

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blood, body fluids, and mucous membranes

Standard precautions involve the use of barriers whenever contact is anticipated with:

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asepsis

The process of reducing the probability that infectious organisms will be transmitted to a susceptible individual is called:

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94

frequent hand washing (at least 15 seconds or more)

A health care worker's single best protection against disease is:

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95

providing an opportunity for fomite transmission

A limited operator who does not change linens between patients is:

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96

a severe allergic reaction

What is anaphylaxis?

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97

CPR

What is the basic life support system used to ventilate the lungs and circulate the blood in the event of cardiac or respiratory arrest?

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98

AED

When a patient in cardiac arrest presents with a rapid, weak, and ineffective heartbeat, what device is used to return the heart to a normal rhythm?

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99

Respiration

Which of the following vital signs can be assessed without touching the patient?

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100

Radial artery at the wrist

What is the most common site for palpation of a patient's pulse?

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