Animal Behavior

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Which behavior is innate and is molded by natural selection in order to increase fitness?

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1

Which behavior is innate and is molded by natural selection in order to increase fitness?

behavior inherited through genes

(Note: behavior can also be learned)

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2

What is the study of behavior that seeks to explain how specific behaviors increase fitness?

behavioral ecology

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3

Which reflexes are automatic and involve two nerves: afferent and efferent nerves?

simple reflexes

<p>simple reflexes</p>
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4

In simple reflexes, where in the body is the response to the stimulus controlled?

spinal cord

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5

Which reflexes are automatic responses to significant stimuli?

complex reflexes

<p>complex reflexes</p>
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6

Why are complex reflexes slower than simple reflexes?

The nerves in a complex

reflex are separated by

an interneuron and do

not converge in the spinal cord

<p>The nerves in a complex</p><p>reflex are separated by</p><p>an interneuron and do</p><p>not converge in the spinal cord</p>
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7

Where in the body are complex reflexes controlled?

brain stem or even cerebrum

(Ex: startle response)

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8

What are behaviors that are innate, or inherited?

instincts

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9

What are innate behaviors that follow a regular, unvarying pattern?

fixed action patterns (FAP)

<p>fixed action patterns (FAP)</p>
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10

What specific stimulus initiates fixed action patterns (FAP)?

sign stimuli

<p>sign stimuli</p>
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11

What is a sign stimulus called when it is between members of the same species?

releaser

<p>releaser</p>
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12

In many FAPs, what will happen to the action if the original sign stimulus is removed?

the action will be completed

(Note: even if the original intent of the behavior cannot be fulfilled)

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13

What is the innate program for acquiring specific behaviors during a critical/sensitive period?

imprinting

<p>imprinting</p>
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14

In imprinting, when is a trait irreversible?

once acquired

(Note: it can influence

sexual selection

<p>once acquired</p><p>(Note: it can influence</p><p>sexual selection</p>
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15

What process occurs when an animal recognizes (learns) that events are connected?

associative learning

(Note: benefit from exposure

to unexpected repeated events)

<p>associative learning</p><p>(Note: benefit from exposure</p><p>to unexpected repeated events)</p>
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16

Which associative learning occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired?

classical conditioning

<p>classical conditioning</p>
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17

In dogs, their innate reflex to salivate when presented food is called what?

unconditioned response

(Note: classical conditioning)

<p>unconditioned response</p><p>(Note: classical conditioning)</p>
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18

The presentation of food to dogs causing then to salivate is called what?

unconditioned stimulus

(Note: classical conditioning)

<p>unconditioned stimulus</p><p>(Note: classical conditioning)</p>
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19

When the stimulus of a bell repeatedly paired with the presentation of food, it is called what?

conditioned stimulus

(Note: classical conditioning)

<p>conditioned stimulus</p><p>(Note: classical conditioning)</p>
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20

When dog salivation is caused by a conditioned stimulus (bell ring), it is now called what?

conditioned response/reflex

(Note: classical conditioning)

<p>conditioned response/reflex</p><p>(Note: classical conditioning)</p>
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21

What form of associative learning occurs when an animal connects its own behavior with either a punishment or reward?

operant conditioning

(AKA: trial-and-error learning)

<p>operant conditioning</p><p>(AKA: trial-and-error learning)</p>
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22

In operant conditioning, what occurs in an animal's behavior if it is rewarded?

the behavior will increase in frequency

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23

In operant conditioning, what occurs in an animal's behavior if it is punished?

the behavior will decrease in frequency

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24

What action in operant conditioning involves adding something bad to decrease a behavior?

positive punishment

(Ex: giving a slap)

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25

What action in operant conditioning involves taking away something good to decrease a behavior?

negative punishment

(Ex: not giving a treat)

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26

What action in operant conditioning involves adding something good to increase a behavior?

positive reinforcement

(Ex: giving a treat)

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27

What action in operant conditioning involves taking away something bad to increase a behavior?

negative reinforcement

(Note: removing a shock collar from an obedient dog)

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28

What event occurs when a learned behavior is reversed in the absence of reinforcement?

extinction

(Note: operant conditioning)

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29

What is the recovery of a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus after a previously extinguished response called?

spontaneous recovery

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30

What form of associative learning involves associating landmarks with a specific location?

spatial learning

(Note: remember if location is dangerous or safe)

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31

What is learned behavior that allows an animal to disregard meaningless stimuli?

habituation

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32

In habituation, it allows individuals to ignore which events known to be inconsequential and remain focused on meaningful events?

repetitive events

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33

What is an increased response to repeated stimuli?

sensitization

(Note: opposite of habituation)

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34

What process occurs when an animal copies the behavior of another animal without having experienced any feedback themselves?

observational/social learning

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35

What process occurs when an animal is exposed to a new situation, but still perform a behavior that generates a positive outcome?

insight

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36

What processes provide a mechanism to learn new behaviors in response to unexpected events without receiving reinforcement?

observational learning and insight

(Note: reduces time for behavior acquisition)

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37

Some behaviors appear to be learned but actually only require what process to occur?

maturation

(Note: actually innate behaviors)

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38

What process involves adaptive responses to the environment?

learning

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39

In higher animals, the capacity for learning is closely associated with what metric?

degree of neurological development

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40

What are daily cycles of behavior?

circadian rhythms

<p>circadian rhythms</p>
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41

What occurs when an organism responds to stimuli similar to the original stimulus but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus?

stimulus generalization

<p>stimulus generalization</p>
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42

What is the ability of the learning organism to differentially respond to slightly different stimuli ?

stimulus discrimination

<p>stimulus discrimination</p>
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43

What is a gradient where the further a stimulus is from the original conditioned stimulus, the lesser of the magnitude of response in the animal?

generalization gradient

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44

What is an undirected (without direction) change in the speed of an animal’s movement in response to a stimulus?

kinesis

(Note: an animal can

slow down in a favorable

environment and speed

up in an unfavorable

environment)

<p>kinesis</p><p>(Note: an animal can</p><p>slow down in a favorable</p><p>environment and speed</p><p>up in an unfavorable</p><p>environment)</p>
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45

What is a directed movement in response to a stimulus, either toward or away from the stimulus?

taxis

<p>taxis</p>
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46

What is the movement toward light?

phototaxis

<p>phototaxis</p>
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47

What is the difference between kinesis and taxis?

1. kinesis = random movement

2. taxis = directional movement

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48

What is the long-distance, seasonal movement of animals?

migration

<p>migration</p>
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49

What are usually the stimuli for migration?

1. availability of food

2. degradation of environment

<p>1. availability of food</p><p>2. degradation of environment</p>
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50

What process is used in species recognition, mating behavior, and organizing social behavior?

communication

<p>communication</p>
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51

Which communication uses chemicals called pheromones?

chemical communication

<p>chemical communication</p>
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52

What are chemicals that trigger reversible behavioral changes?

releaser pheromones

<p>releaser pheromones</p>
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53

What are chemicals that cause long-term physiological (and behavioral) changes?

primer pheromones

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54

What are the two methods of interacting with pheromones?

1. smell

2. ingestion

<p>1. smell</p><p>2. ingestion</p>
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55

What are the functions of pheromones?

1. territorial markers

2. alarm symbols

3. sex attractants

4. reproductive maturity accelerators

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56

Which communication is conveyed via visual displays?

visual communication

<p>visual communication</p>
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57

Visual displays are often employed in which scenarios?

1. to signify aggression

2. courtship

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58

What behaviors occur when an animal competes for territory, food, or a mate?

agnostic behaviors

<p>agnostic behaviors</p>
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59

Which agnostic behavior involves fighting between animals?

aggression

<p>aggression</p>
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60

Which agnostic behavior involves an animal yielding to another?

submission

<p>submission</p>
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61

Which communication utilizes sound?

auditory

<p>auditory</p>
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62

Sounds are commonly used for communication in which scenarios?

1. long distances

2. through water

3. at night

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63

What conditions are sounds used to convey?

1. warn danger

2. communicate reproductive readiness

3. species recognition

4. warning against rivals

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64

Which agnostic behavior involves intimidation?

threats

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65

Which communication involves touch?

tactile

<p>tactile</p>
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66

In which scenarios is tactile communication common?

1. social bonding

2. infant care

3. grooming

4. mating

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67

The goal of which behavior is to maximize the amount of food eaten and to minimize energy expenditure and risk?

foraging

<p>foraging</p>
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68

Foraging involves which activities?

1. eating

2. searching for food

3. recognizing food

4. capturing food

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69

Why do some animals form herds, flocks, and schools?

they can cooperate

and carry out a

behavior more

successfully as a group

<p>they can cooperate</p><p>and carry out a</p><p>behavior more</p><p>successfully as a group</p>
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70

Which benefit of a herd involves hiding most individuals from view?

concealment

<p>concealment</p>
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71

Which benefit of a herd involves taking turns foraging and watching for predators?

vigilance

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72

Which benefit of a herd involves shielding young or mobbing a predator?

defense

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73

What group of animals enables members to corner and successfully attack large prey?

pack

<p>pack</p>
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74

What visual stimuli help animals find favored or plentiful food by using a specific, perhaps abbreviated ‘image’ of the target?

search images

<p>search images</p>
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75

Where did agnostic behavior originate?

competition for food, mates, or territory

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76

Why is agnostic behavior ritualized?

to minimize injuries and time spent in contests

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77

What is the social construct involving different levels of power and status depending on an individual's rank in the group?

dominance hierarchies

(Note: hierarchies minimizes

fighting for food and mates)

<p>dominance hierarchies</p><p>(Note: hierarchies minimizes</p><p>fighting for food and mates)</p>
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78

What is a linear order of status used to describe the dominance hierarchy in chickens?

pecking order

<p>pecking order</p>
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79

What is the active possession and defense of territory to ensure adequate food and place to mate?

territoriality

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80

What is seemingly unselfish behavior that appears to reduce the fitness of an individual?

altruistic behavior

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81

Which type of fitness does altruistic behavior increase?

inclusive fitness

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82

What is the fitness of an individual plus its relatives who share some identical genes?

inclusive fitness

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83

What is natural selection that increases inclusive fitness?

kin selection

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84

What process occurs when unrelated members of the same species help each other?

reciprocal altruism

(Note: occurs in species with stable social groups that are likely to meet again)

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85

What is the equation for Hamilton's rule?

rB > C

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86

What does the r represent in rB > C (Hamilton's rule)?

the genetic relatedness between the altruist and the relative

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87

What does the B represent in rB > C (Hamilton's rule)?

the amount of genes the relative can pass on after it is helped by an altruist

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88

What does the C represent in rB > C (Hamilton's rule)?

the altruist's direct fitness

(Note: number of genes that animal can pass on by itself without relatives)

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89

What is the principle that for natural selection to favor an

altruistic act?

Hamilton's rule

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90

Under what conditions can altruistic behavior occur according to Hamilton's rule?

when (r) and (B) is multiplied and is greater than (C)

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91

What is a pacifying social behavior that seeks to pacify aggression or to avoid being attacked by showing an inferior social stance?

appeasement behavior

(e.g. moving/turning away)

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92

Which mating system involves one male mating with one female?

monogamy

<p>monogamy</p>
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93

Which mating system involves one individual mating with multiple members of the opposite sex?

polygamy

<p>polygamy</p>
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94

What type of polygamy involves one male mating with multiple females?

polygyny

<p>polygyny</p>
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95

What type of polygamy involves one female mating with multiple males?

polyandry

<p>polyandry</p>
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96

What occurs when individuals in a population copy the mate choice of others?

mate-choice copying

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97

What theory refers to the successful outcome of mating depending on dynamic, constantly shifting strategies of all the individuals involved?

game theory

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98

How is game theory described in evolutionary terms?

fitness of a particular behavioral phenotype is influenced by the behavior of other phenotypes in population

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99

Which reproductive approach is a one-shot, big-bang reproduction in which many offspring are produced in a single opportunity?

semelparity

<p>semelparity</p>
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100

Which reproductive approach involves repeated reproduction?

iteroparity

<p>iteroparity</p>
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