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Which behavior is innate and is molded by natural selection in order to increase fitness?
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behavior inherited through genes
(Note: behavior can also be learned)
What is the study of behavior that seeks to explain how specific behaviors increase fitness?
Which reflexes are automatic and involve two nerves: afferent and efferent nerves?
In simple reflexes, where in the body is the response to the stimulus controlled?
Which reflexes are automatic responses to significant stimuli?
Why are complex reflexes slower than simple reflexes?
The nerves in a complex
reflex are separated by
an interneuron and do
not converge in the spinal cord
Where in the body are complex reflexes controlled?
brain stem or even cerebrum
(Ex: startle response)
What are behaviors that are innate, or inherited?
What are innate behaviors that follow a regular, unvarying pattern?
fixed action patterns (FAP)
What specific stimulus initiates fixed action patterns (FAP)?
What is a sign stimulus called when it is between members of the same species?
In many FAPs, what will happen to the action if the original sign stimulus is removed?
the action will be completed
(Note: even if the original intent of the behavior cannot be fulfilled)
What is the innate program for acquiring specific behaviors during a critical/sensitive period?
In imprinting, when is a trait irreversible?
(Note: it can influence
What process occurs when an animal recognizes (learns) that events are connected?
(Note: benefit from exposure
to unexpected repeated events)
Which associative learning occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired?
In dogs, their innate reflex to salivate when presented food is called what?
(Note: classical conditioning)
The presentation of food to dogs causing then to salivate is called what?
When the stimulus of a bell repeatedly paired with the presentation of food, it is called what?
When dog salivation is caused by a conditioned stimulus (bell ring), it is now called what?
What form of associative learning occurs when an animal connects its own behavior with either a punishment or reward?
(AKA: trial-and-error learning)
In operant conditioning, what occurs in an animal's behavior if it is rewarded?
the behavior will increase in frequency
In operant conditioning, what occurs in an animal's behavior if it is punished?
the behavior will decrease in frequency
What action in operant conditioning involves adding something bad to decrease a behavior?
(Ex: giving a slap)
What action in operant conditioning involves taking away something good to decrease a behavior?
(Ex: not giving a treat)
What action in operant conditioning involves adding something good to increase a behavior?
(Ex: giving a treat)
What action in operant conditioning involves taking away something bad to increase a behavior?
(Note: removing a shock collar from an obedient dog)
What event occurs when a learned behavior is reversed in the absence of reinforcement?
(Note: operant conditioning)
What is the recovery of a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus after a previously extinguished response called?
What form of associative learning involves associating landmarks with a specific location?
(Note: remember if location is dangerous or safe)
What is learned behavior that allows an animal to disregard meaningless stimuli?
In habituation, it allows individuals to ignore which events known to be inconsequential and remain focused on meaningful events?
What is an increased response to repeated stimuli?
(Note: opposite of habituation)
What process occurs when an animal copies the behavior of another animal without having experienced any feedback themselves?
What process occurs when an animal is exposed to a new situation, but still perform a behavior that generates a positive outcome?
What processes provide a mechanism to learn new behaviors in response to unexpected events without receiving reinforcement?
observational learning and insight
(Note: reduces time for behavior acquisition)
Some behaviors appear to be learned but actually only require what process to occur?
(Note: actually innate behaviors)
What process involves adaptive responses to the environment?
In higher animals, the capacity for learning is closely associated with what metric?
degree of neurological development
What are daily cycles of behavior?
What occurs when an organism responds to stimuli similar to the original stimulus but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus?
What is the ability of the learning organism to differentially respond to slightly different stimuli ?
What is a gradient where the further a stimulus is from the original conditioned stimulus, the lesser of the magnitude of response in the animal?
What is an undirected (without direction) change in the speed of an animal’s movement in response to a stimulus?
(Note: an animal can
slow down in a favorable
environment and speed
up in an unfavorable
What is a directed movement in response to a stimulus, either toward or away from the stimulus?
What is the movement toward light?
What is the difference between kinesis and taxis?
1. kinesis = random movement
2. taxis = directional movement
What is the long-distance, seasonal movement of animals?
What are usually the stimuli for migration?
1. availability of food
2. degradation of environment
What process is used in species recognition, mating behavior, and organizing social behavior?
Which communication uses chemicals called pheromones?
What are chemicals that trigger reversible behavioral changes?
What are chemicals that cause long-term physiological (and behavioral) changes?
What are the two methods of interacting with pheromones?
What are the functions of pheromones?
1. territorial markers
2. alarm symbols
3. sex attractants
4. reproductive maturity accelerators
Which communication is conveyed via visual displays?
Visual displays are often employed in which scenarios?
1. to signify aggression
What behaviors occur when an animal competes for territory, food, or a mate?
Which agnostic behavior involves fighting between animals?
Which agnostic behavior involves an animal yielding to another?
Which communication utilizes sound?
Sounds are commonly used for communication in which scenarios?
1. long distances
2. through water
3. at night
What conditions are sounds used to convey?
1. warn danger
2. communicate reproductive readiness
3. species recognition
4. warning against rivals
Which agnostic behavior involves intimidation?
Which communication involves touch?
In which scenarios is tactile communication common?
1. social bonding
2. infant care
The goal of which behavior is to maximize the amount of food eaten and to minimize energy expenditure and risk?
Foraging involves which activities?
2. searching for food
3. recognizing food
4. capturing food
Why do some animals form herds, flocks, and schools?
they can cooperate
and carry out a
successfully as a group
Which benefit of a herd involves hiding most individuals from view?
Which benefit of a herd involves taking turns foraging and watching for predators?
Which benefit of a herd involves shielding young or mobbing a predator?
What group of animals enables members to corner and successfully attack large prey?
What visual stimuli help animals find favored or plentiful food by using a specific, perhaps abbreviated ‘image’ of the target?
Where did agnostic behavior originate?
competition for food, mates, or territory
Why is agnostic behavior ritualized?
to minimize injuries and time spent in contests
What is the social construct involving different levels of power and status depending on an individual's rank in the group?
(Note: hierarchies minimizes
fighting for food and mates)
What is a linear order of status used to describe the dominance hierarchy in chickens?
What is the active possession and defense of territory to ensure adequate food and place to mate?
What is seemingly unselfish behavior that appears to reduce the fitness of an individual?
Which type of fitness does altruistic behavior increase?
What is the fitness of an individual plus its relatives who share some identical genes?
What is natural selection that increases inclusive fitness?
What process occurs when unrelated members of the same species help each other?
(Note: occurs in species with stable social groups that are likely to meet again)