Nervous System Anatomy and Physiology, Anatomy and Physiology, nervous system, Nervous system physiology and anatomy

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spinal cord

a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column

<p>a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column</p>
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cerebellum

a major feature of the hindbrain responsible for body movements and balance

<p>a major feature of the hindbrain responsible for body movements and balance</p>
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cerebrum

the principal and most anterior part of the brain in vertebrates, located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres, left and right, separated by a fissure

<p>the principal and most anterior part of the brain in vertebrates, located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres, left and right, separated by a fissure</p>
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midbrain

relays sensory and motor impulses; serves important functions in motor movement, particularly movements of the eye, and in auditory and visual processing.

<p>relays sensory and motor impulses; serves important functions in motor movement, particularly movements of the eye, and in auditory and visual processing.</p>
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pons

part of the brain stem, assists with regulation of breathing

<p>part of the brain stem, assists with regulation of breathing</p>
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medulla oblongata

part of brain stem, regulates heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing, and controls the reflexes of coughing, sneezing, and vomiting

<p>part of brain stem, regulates heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing, and controls the reflexes of coughing, sneezing, and vomiting</p>
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pituitary gland

a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. It is part of the endocrine system and produces critical hormones, which are chemical substances that control various bodily functions

<p>a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. It is part of the endocrine system and produces critical hormones, which are chemical substances that control various bodily functions</p>
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hypothalamus

lower portion of diencephalon which acts as an autonomic center regulating metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure, thirst, hunger, energy level, and body temperature

<p>lower portion of diencephalon which acts as an autonomic center regulating metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure, thirst, hunger, energy level, and body temperature</p>
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thalamus

middle portion of diencephalon which relays sensory impulses up to the sensory cortex (aka the cerebrum); regulates sleep and consciousness

<p>middle portion of diencephalon which relays sensory impulses up to the sensory cortex (aka the cerebrum); regulates sleep and consciousness</p>
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epithalamus

upper portion of diencephalon that regulates hormones secreted by the pineal gland. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns

<p>upper portion of diencephalon that regulates hormones secreted by the pineal gland. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns</p>
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striatum

structure lying at the base of the forebrain which is a critical component of the motor and reward systems. Coordinates decision-making, motivation, and reinforcement.

<p>structure lying at the base of the forebrain which is a critical component of the motor and reward systems. Coordinates decision-making, motivation, and reinforcement.</p>
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corpus callosum

a thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebral cortex lobes into left and right hemispheres and acts as the connection between the two.

<p>a thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebral cortex lobes into left and right hemispheres and acts as the connection between the two.</p>
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meninges

three layers of protective tissue between the brain and skull

<p>three layers of protective tissue between the brain and skull</p>
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frontal lobe

cerebrum lobe responsible for memory, intelligence, behavior, emotions, motor function, and smell

<p>cerebrum lobe responsible for memory, intelligence, behavior, emotions, motor function, and smell</p>
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occipital lobe

cerebrum lobe responsible for vision and speech

<p>cerebrum lobe responsible for vision and speech</p>
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parietal lobe

lobe responsible for somatic sensations (pain, touch, temperature perception), and speech

<p>lobe responsible for somatic sensations (pain, touch, temperature perception), and speech</p>
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temporal lobe

lobe responsible for hearing, smell, memory, speech, and emotion

<p>lobe responsible for hearing, smell, memory, speech, and emotion</p>
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brain stem

Portion of brain that contains the pons, medulla oblongata, and the beginning of the spinal cord, controls the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body, and it also controls basic body functions

<p>Portion of brain that contains the pons, medulla oblongata, and the beginning of the spinal cord, controls the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body, and it also controls basic body functions</p>
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Broca's area

area on left frontal lobe responsible for tongue and lip movements

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primary motor cortex

area in frontal lobe responsible for sending impulses to muscles

<p>area in frontal lobe responsible for sending impulses to muscles</p>
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primary somatic sensory cortex

area in parietal lobe responsible for interpreting sensory impulses from the body

<p>area in parietal lobe responsible for interpreting sensory impulses from the body</p>
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dura mater

outermost meninges layer

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arachnoid mater

middle meninges layer

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pia mater

inner meninges layer

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sensory input

also known as the afferent pathway; the gathering information about changes in the environment

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integration

process of interpreting sensory input and deciding motor output

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motor output

also known as the efferent pathway; the response sent from the CNS to the rest of the body

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CNS

composed of brain and spinal cord

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PNS

composed of all other nerves and sensory receptors

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autonomic NS

involuntary control of cardiac adn smooth muscles

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Somatic NS

voluntary control of skeletal muscles

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parasympathetic

part of autonomic N.S. responsible for involuntary daily functions

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sympathetic NS

part of the autonomic N.S. responsible for response to potential danger

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neuroglia

neuron supporting cells of the nervous system

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Astrocytes

neuroglia that protects neurons from harmful substances in the blood

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ependymal

neuroglia that form a protective covering around the spinal cord and cavities of the brain

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oligodendrocytes

neuroglia that produce myelin sheaths around nerve fibers in the CNS

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Schwann cells

neuroglia that produce myelin sheaths around nerve fibers in the PNS

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Satellite cells

neuroglia that cushion neurons of the PNS

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dendrites

conduct impulses toward the cell body of a neuron

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axons

conduct impulses away from the cell body of a neuron

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myelin sheath

insulating material on axon fibers that increase the rate of impulse transmission

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neurotransmitter

a chemical messanger that sends a message from the axon terminals to a muscle or nearby neuron

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synaptic cleft

a gap between axon terminals and nearby muscles or neurons

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Nodes of Ranvier

areas on an axon without a myelin sheath; also known as gray matter

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action potential

another name for a nerve impulse

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depolarization

the inflow of sodium ions resulting in a more positive environment inside the neuron and the propagation of an action potential.

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repolarization

the outflow of potassium ions resulting in the return of a more positive environment outside the neuron.

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refractory period

time between the start of an action potential and repolarization

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fissure

a deep grove in the brain

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Meningitis

inflammation of the meninges causing pin-point rashes, fever, photophobia, etc.

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Streptococcus pneumonia

The cause of meningitis

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Botox

The use of toxins to block nerve signals from the brain to targeted muscle area

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54

describe the major functions of the brain stem...

the brain stem regulated vital basic functions like regulation of heart rate, breathing, sleeping, and eating

<p>the brain stem regulated vital basic functions like regulation of heart rate, breathing, sleeping, and eating</p>
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describe the major functions of the medulla...

carries out and regulates life sustaining that are done involuntarily (without thinking).

<p>carries out and regulates life sustaining that are done involuntarily (without thinking).</p>
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describe the major functions of the pons...

connects the upper and lower parts of the brain

<p>connects the upper and lower parts of the brain</p>
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temporal lobe

responsible for processing auditory information from the ears

<p>responsible for processing auditory information from the ears</p>
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parietal lobe

processes sensory things that have to do with temperature, touch, and taste

<p>processes sensory things that have to do with temperature, touch, and taste</p>
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frontal lobe

carries out higher mental processes such as thinking, decision making, and planning. (This is where our personality is formed

<p>carries out higher mental processes such as thinking, decision making, and planning. (This is where our personality is formed</p>
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occipital lobe

responsible for processing visual information from the eyes. It helps you correctly understand what you are seeing

<p>responsible for processing visual information from the eyes. It helps you correctly understand what you are seeing</p>
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61

how does nicotine affect the nervous system?

Nicotine acts on the CNS and PNS. The rapid affects of nicotine include faster respiration, construction of arteries, and it stimulates the central nervous system

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62

describe the major functions of the cerebral cortex

the cerebral cortex is where the four lobes are located

<p>the cerebral cortex is where the four lobes are located</p>
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63

pituitary gland

it is referred to as the body's "master gland" because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands

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hypothalamus gland

the section of the brain responsible for the production of many of the body's essential hormones. It's chemical substances help control different cells and organs

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what is a gland?

a gland is an organ that synthesizes a substance

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what hormones do the Hypothalamus Gland produce?

it produces dopamine and somatostaton

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67

how does caffeine affect the nervous system?

caffeine is an odorless, but bitter, white powder that has the ability to stimulate the CNS

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how does alcohol affect the nervous system?

alcohol can contract brain tissues, destroys brain cells, as well as depresses the CNS

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how does marijuana affect the nervous system?

tetrehydrocannabinol (THC) acts on the cannabinoid receptors which are found on neurons in many places in the brain. It affects the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum

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70

what is the job of the spinal cord?

the spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of the neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body

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71

the cerebrum cortex is...

associated with higher brain function such as thought and action

<p>associated with higher brain function such as thought and action</p>
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what hormones come from the pituitary gland?

the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the production and release of cortisol from the cortex and the andrenal gland.

the growth hormone (GH) participates in regulating the body's metabolism

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73

what hormones do the thalamus produce?

anti-diuretic hormone

ADH travels in the blood stream to you kindneys so more water is reabsorbed into your blood

oxytocin

stimulates the uterine muscles to contract

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74

what is a thalamus gland?

the thalamus serves as a relay station for impulses traveling to and from the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, and cerebrum

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describe the major functions of the cerebellum...

responsible for balance and coordination of muscles and the body. It is extremely important for being able to preform everyday voluntary things

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76

what is a hormone?

hormones are chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body

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77

describe the function of each sense organ...

touch-skin

smell-nose

taste-tongue

hearing-ear

sight-eyes

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78

cerebral palsy

A congenital disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture due to abnormal brain development...the cerebral cortex is affected

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glaucoma

a group of eye conditions that can cause blindness. The visual cortex is affected

<p>a group of eye conditions that can cause blindness. The visual cortex is affected</p>
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epilepsy

Also known as seizure disorder, it is a disorder in which nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed, causing seizures

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multiple sclerosis

a disease in which the immune system eats away at the protective covering of the nerves. The brain and spinal cord are affected

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Alzheimer's disease

a progressive disease that that destroys memory and other important mental functions. The condition affects the cerebral cortex and hippocampus

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Parkinson's disease

a disorder of the CNS that affects movement, often including tremors

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Nervous system

Major communication system in the body. Functions in sensing, processing, communicating between the cells throughout the entire body

<p>Major communication system in the body. Functions in sensing, processing, communicating between the cells throughout the entire body</p>
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Central Nervous system

Consists of the brain and spinal cord

<p>Consists of the brain and spinal cord</p>
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Peripheral nervous system

Extends from the spinal cord out to the entire body. Touch and feeling travels through neurons in the peripheral nerves through the afferent pathway to the spinal cord/brain

<p>Extends from the spinal cord out to the entire body. Touch and feeling travels through neurons in the peripheral nerves through the afferent pathway to the spinal cord/brain</p>
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87

Afferent pathway

Input. Away from the periphery to the CNS. Brain functions as the integrator. Includes somatic, special, and visceral senses

<p>Input. Away from the periphery to the CNS. Brain functions as the integrator. Includes somatic, special, and visceral senses</p>
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Efferent pathway

Output. Leaves the CNS and travels to the periphery. Includes somatic and automatic nervous systems and sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways

<p>Output. Leaves the CNS and travels to the periphery. Includes somatic and automatic nervous systems and sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways</p>
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Somatic response

Signals travel from the brain down efferent pathway to muscles/neruons

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Neurons

Interconnect and communicate with each other. From the brain to spinal, to peripheral nerves, to the effector organs to allow us to react to our surroundings. Use electrical and chemical signals

<p>Interconnect and communicate with each other. From the brain to spinal, to peripheral nerves, to the effector organs to allow us to react to our surroundings. Use electrical and chemical signals</p>
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Action potential

Sending of message leads to chemical release (neurotransmitter)

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Brain and spinal cord

Delicate/semisolid structures that require support and protection. Bone (skull, vertabrae), meninges (membranes), fluid (CSF)

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Ventricles

Cavities filled with CSF, lined with ependymal cells

<p>Cavities filled with CSF, lined with ependymal cells</p>
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CSF

Secreted from support cells (glia). Support the brain, regulate cell environment. Circulates through ventricular system. Produced by choroid plexus ependymal cells, supports/cushions against trauma, regulates environment of the brain

<p>Secreted from support cells (glia). Support the brain, regulate cell environment. Circulates through ventricular system. Produced by choroid plexus ependymal cells, supports/cushions against trauma, regulates environment of the brain</p>
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Glia

Support cells. More numerous than neurons. Always making CSF

<p>Support cells. More numerous than neurons. Always making CSF</p>
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Astrocytes

Regulate extracellular environment (ions, neurotransmitters). Guide developing neuronal processes

<p>Regulate extracellular environment (ions, neurotransmitters). Guide developing neuronal processes</p>
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Microglia

Immune function (phagocytize bacteria and debris, release cytokines)

<p>Immune function (phagocytize bacteria and debris, release cytokines)</p>
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Oligodendrocytes

Myelinate central nerves multiple nerves at a time

<p>Myelinate central nerves multiple nerves at a time</p>
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Myelin

Protect axon from outside ions. Act like electrical tape. Made from schwann cells in the periphery and oligodendrocytes in the CNS

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Ependymal cells

Secrete CSF, ions, proteins, etc. Line the ventricles

<p>Secrete CSF, ions, proteins, etc. Line the ventricles</p>
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