Kins- MT1 ch. 1-7

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Anatomy

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143 Terms

1

Anatomy

Greek root that means to cut apart and refers to the internal and external structures of the body

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Physiology

Greek root that means study of nature origins and refers to the study of the functions of those structures

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3

Structure determines what?

function

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Sytemic anatomy

studies the anatomy (structures) of each body system

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Regional anatomy

studies the interrelationships of structures in specific regions of the body

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Surface anatomy

study of body's surface markings

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Cross anatomy

structures inside organs that can be seen with the naked eye

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8

Microscopic anatomy

structures that require a microscope (histology/cytology)

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9

Neurophysiology

explains the workings of the nervous system

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10

Electrophysiology

the study of electrical activity in the body

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11

Organization of the Human Body

cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism

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12

Cells

Basic unit of life that are specialized in structure and function to carry out other specific roles (<200)

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Tissues

Groups of cells with a common structure and function.There are 4 types: connective, epithelial, muscle, nervous

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Systems

there are 11 systems that are groups of organs working together to perform complex functions

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Functions of human life

Organization, homeostasis, metabolism, responsiveness, movement, development, and reproduction

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16

Integumentary system

encloses internal body structures, site of many sensory receptors

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Skeletal system

supports the body, enables movement (with muscular system)

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18

Muscular system

enables movement of the body (with skeletal system) and helps maintain body temperature

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Nervous system

detects and processes sensory information, activates bodily responses

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Endocrine system

secretes hormones and helps regulate body processes

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21

Cardiovascular system

delivers oxygen and nutrients to tissues, equalizes temperature in the body

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Lymphatic system

returns fluid to blood, defends against pathogens

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Respiratory system

removes carbon dioxide from the body, delivers oxygen to blood

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Digestive system

processes food for use by the body, removes wastes from undigested food

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Urinary system

controls water balance in the body, removes wastes from blood and excretes them

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Male reproductive system

produces sex hormones and gametes, delivers gametes to female

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Female reproductive system

produces sex hormones and gametes, supports embryo/fetus until birth, produces milk for infant

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Atom

Basic unit of matter

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29

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space

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Element

A pure substance made of only one kind of atom

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31

Atoms are made up of...

protons, neutrons, electrons

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32

Protons

Positively charged particles

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Neutrons

the particles of the nucleus that have no charge

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Electrons

Negatively charged particles

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electrically neutral

an object that has equal amounts of positive (protons) and negative (electrons) charges

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Ion

atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a + or - charge

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Anion

A negatively charged ion

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Cation

A positively charged ion

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39

Isotopes

Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

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40

Electromagnetic force

an interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles

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41

Nuclear force

the interaction that binds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus

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42

Body's elements

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, others (calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, magnesium etc)

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43

Molecules

two or more atoms joined together

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44

Compounds

2 or more elements chemically combined

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Chemical bonds

an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells.

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46

Ionic bonds

formed when one or more electrons are donated from one atom to another

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47

Covalent bonds

bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms.

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48

Hydrogen bonds

weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom

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49

Inorganic compounds

compounds that do not contain carbon and have covalent or ionic bonds (water, acids, bases, salts)

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50

Organic compounds

compounds that contain carbon and have covalent bonds (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)

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Carbohydrates

hydrated carbons and are reserved to as saccharides. They act as a source of energy and storage of energy

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Monosaccharides

monomers of sugar (glucose, fructose, galactose)

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Disaccharides

2 monomers of sugar (sucrose, lactose, maltose)

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Polysaccharides

polymers made of 100-1000 of sugar monomers (starch, cellulose, glycogen)

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Lipids

fats and oils (phospholipid, triglyceride, cholesterol)

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Proteins

Nutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues

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Protein functions

support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination and control, defense

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Protein structure

central carbon (C), carboxyl, amine group, hydrogen, R-group

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Protein linkage

peptide bond

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Primary structure of protein

sequence of amino acids

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Secondary structure of protein

alpha helix and beta pleated sheet

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Tertiary structure of protein

3D shape of protein

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Quaternary structure of protein

overall protein structure, combining 2 or more polypeptides

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Protein synthesis

process of breaking down protein into amino acids and takes place in cells and is controlled by genes

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Nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

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DNA

A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes and is double stranded

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RNA

A single-stranded nucleic acid that passes along genetic messages

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Complementary base pairing

In DNA, T pairs with A; G pairs with C; RNA, U pairs with A and G pairs with C

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ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

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70

Chemical reactions

the making and breaking of chemical bonds

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71

Metabolism

the combination of biochemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials

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Exothermic

a reaction that releases energy in the form of heat (catabolic)

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Endothermic

a reaction that absorbs energy (anabolism)

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Enzymes

catalysts (proteins) for chemical reactions in living things

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75

Homeostasis

a tendency to maintain a stable constant internal environment

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Negative feedback loop

A feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring (stimulus-> sensor->control->effector->) common in maintaining homeostasis

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Thermoregulation

process of maintaining an internal temperature within a tolerable range.

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Hypothalamus

structure located deep in the brain that receives chemical messages from nerves and must react to those messages to keep the body's homeostasis (control centre)

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Water balance (osmoregulation)

low water content (stimulus), stimulation of osmoreceptors in hypothalamus (sensor), increased -adh secretion from posterior pituitary (control centre), increased water retention by kidneys (effector)

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Organs systems involved in water balance...

cardiovascular, nervous, urinary, endocrine and lymphatic

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81

Blood sugar regulation

stimulus high glucose->pancreas releases insulin->liver stores glucose->decreases blood glucose levels=homeostasis. stimulus low glucose->pancreas releases glucogon->liver breaksdown glucogon and relseases glucose->blood glucose level rises=homeostasis

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Positive feedback loop

causes a system to change further in the same direction. (intensifying) not common in maintaining homeostasis

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Diseases from homeostatic imbalance are caused because...

the positive or negative feedback system is not working correctly and causes aging, diabetes, congestive heart failure

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Diseases

any failure of normal physiological function that leads to negative symptoms

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Diabetes

metabolic disorder caused by excess blood glucose levels

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Set point

the physiological optimum vale for a system

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87

Cellular theory

all organisms are made of one or more cells, all the life functions of organisms occur within cells, all cells come from preexisting cells

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88

Cell types

<200 types of cells in the human body and each has a special job to do

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89

Cell size

surface area to volume ratio

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90

Organelles

A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell

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91

Plasma membrane

a selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells

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Cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

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Ribosomes

makes proteins

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DNA.

contains genetic instructions that cells need to make proteins

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Nucleus

center of an atom

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96

Eukaryotic cells

contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.

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97

Prokaryotic cells

do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles

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98

Plasma membrane is made of

phospholipids and proteins

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Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell (aerobic cellular respiration)

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100

Endomembrane system

rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus

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