WORLD HISTORY FINAL

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131 Terms
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monotheistic

the belief in one god

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polytheistic

belief in several gods

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christianity

Bible, Jesus God Holy Spirit, Apostles, Paul, jewish, Romans, Constantine, founded in the Roman empire, First century AD

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christian origin

First century AD

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judaism

Torah, Rosh Hashanna, Sabbath, Yom Kippur, Synagogue, Rabbi, Talmud,  Israelites, Abraham, God, Moses, David, Solomon, Temple, 10 commandments, sounded in Canaan

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judaism origin

2000 BC

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hinduism

Brahim, Priests, head of the household, individual worship, offerings, cows, temples, shrines, Dharma (personal religious and moral duties), reincarnation based on karma, polytheistic

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hinduism origin

Ancient India 2300-1500 BC

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buddhism

Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), Caste system decides spiritual purity (Brahmins(teachers), Warriors, Traders, Shudras (loser jobs), Dalits(untouchables), 4 noble truths (SUFFERING), eightfold path (VASCLEMC), Reincarnation to reach Nirvana, way of life, no god or gods)

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buddhism origin

Ancient India, 5th century AD

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islam

Muhammad, Bedouins (nomadic tribes), Allah, believes priests aren’t necessary, Qur’an and veils for woman, Mosque, 5 pillars of Islam, Sharia (islamic law based on teachings), Day of judgement and resurrection, one god monotheism

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islam origin

Mecca, 610 AD

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five pillars of islam

Belief in Allah and Muhammad as Prophet, 5 daily prayers, Alms for the needy, Fasting during Ramadan, Pilgrimage to Mecca

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ten commandments

  1. I am the LORD your God. You shall worship the Lord your God and Him only shall you serve.

  2. You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.

  3. Remember to keep holy the Sabbath day.

  4. Honor your father and your mother.

  5. You shall not kill.

  6. You shall not commit adultery.

  7. You shall not steal.

  8. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

  9. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife.

  10. You shall not covet your neighbor's goods.

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four noble truths

All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow- the cause of suffering is rooted in greed, desire, and hatred, cure for suffering is to overcome desire and other evils- way to overcome desire and other evil is the eightfold path

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crusades

A military religious execution by the pope which aimed to take back the Holy Land of Jerusalem from the Muslims. It was a series of several wars occuring from 1096 to 1291.

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columbian exchange

The widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, people, technological ideas, and disease between Europe Africa and Asia, and the new found worlds Americas. It connected previously isolated ecosystems and cultures and spread ideas globally.

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the silk road

A network of trade routes in Europe and Asia active from second century BCE until mid 15th century. It was a route for exporting goods such as silk, spices, metals, but also culture and arts.

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negative effects of the silk road

Lead to the transmission of disease such as smallpox and people were murdered and died on the travel.

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describe the causes and effects of the crusades

City of Jerusalem was center of faith for 3 major religions. ALL the religions wanted it. The catholics really wanted to take back Jerusalem from the muslims especially Pope Urban 2. He sent knights to win back Jerusalem and called the mission a crusade. (Pope Urban just wanted to unite the church and have full control). The crusades lead to many deaths including men women and children. The end of the crusades lessened the pope’s power and gave more to the king, increased trade between europe and middle east, started tension between nations, and more culture and benefit.

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what was traded on the silk road? why was it important?

Silk, Jade (and other precious stones), tea, spices, animals, glassware, religion, ideas. The silk road helped spread culture and information across the euroasias in a time when communication was limited.

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renaissance

A period in European history marking the end of the middle ages and covering the 15th and 16th centuries. It was seen as a period of rebirth and there was a lot of focus on humanism. It was a new change in art, literature, and ideas. People were interested in what the Greeks and Romans did. It catalyzed cultural exchanges.

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humanism

A philosophy that emphasized the individual and considered the welfare of human kind rather than a god. It centered on the nature of humanity and it emerged from the study of classical antiquity. It helped ignite curiosity and desire for knowledge - started the renaissance.

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secular

The idea of eradicating religion from public and social life. Limit religions' influence of state politics. Secular is NOT religious. Secular ideas came from the renaissance and humanism people wanted to live for their own sake.

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reformation

A religious reform movement that resulted in prodenstants. It rejected the ideas of the pope because he was being unfair and taking their money. The church was abusing authority and freeing criminals that paid. Indulgences were used for personal gain.

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martin luther

A German teacher, monk, and philosopher who brought about the protestant reformation. He challenged the catholic church head on in his 95 theses where he attacked their method of granting indulgences.

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indulgences

A way Catholics could pay to reduce punishment for crimes. The money was used by the church for its own gain. It supposedly absolved one’s sins and was a method of exploitation.

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95 thesis

Martin luther’s expression of the practices and beliefs of the catholic church. He wrote about how unfair they were being.

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in what ways did the renaissance influence changes in art and literature?

The promotion of humanism and learning prompted changes in art and literature because people wanted to be better than past performers. People also wanted their emotions to be represented in art pieces. Because of this people started creating more realistic pieces.

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How would you describe a Renaissance man?

A ideal renaissance man was an intellectual and philosopher studying a wide range of subjects. Usually they would be a profound writer or artist as well as a mathematician and scientist.

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How would you describe a Renaissance woman?

The ideal woman was quiet and peaceful, had no problem being controlled by a man. There were very high beauty standards.

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in what ways did the role of the church change during the renaissance?

The church was no longer the most important thing to people. The beginning of the reformation brewed and the church in the end lost a lot of power.

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what were the legacies of the renaissance?

More information being available, increased learning and interest in books and literature, discoveries and people being excited to learn, people focusing on themselves.

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for what reason did martin luther oppose the church?

He didn’t like that they were paying people out of jail, they were being biased and unfair.

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in what ways did luther challenge the church and what was the result?

He started the protestant reformation, he posted in 95 theses. He disagreed openly with and wanted to change the practices of the church. This resulted in a new religion of protestant, the bible being translated into more languages, the end of indulgences, and increased education.

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absolutism

unrestrained power held by a monarchy

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divine right

the belief that power is given to a monarch by a god- the right to rule

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westernization

Societies accept western European culture through either compulsion or influence. Plays into globalization.

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phillip II

King of Spain and example of an absolute monarch. He believed he had divine right and his authority came directly from god. He centralized power and took control of all aspects of government. Decisions were made solely by him. He also controlled all Catholic matters.

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louis XIV (sun king)

King of France and the epitome of an absolute monarch. He weakened the power of the nobility, extended control over the provinces, and gave himself full governmental control. He constructed the Palace of Versailles which allowed him to better control the nobility. He was massive arts patron.

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peter the great

Tsar of Russia who implemented significant reforms and modernization efforts in Russia. He had extensive control over the state and its institutions which helped him to westernize Russia. He also tried expanding the military and waged several successful wars. He ruled and was not limited and had significant influence over all aspects of society.

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charles I

King of England, Scotland, and Irland until executed. He conflicted with parliament and resolved it several times. This allowed him to rule towards his own authority. He favored a hgh anglican form of worship which he imposed on Scotland. His conflict with parliment eventually led to the english civil war which was the Calviers against Parliament. Charles death had a significant politcal and constritutional implications.

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in what ways did absolute leaders exercise their power?

Centralized control which concentrated the power into one rulers hands, limiting the influence of other influence and authority. They claimed divine right which made their rule justified.

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enlightenment

An intellectual and cultural movement in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. Characterized by a focus on reason, rationality, and critical thinking. It called for questioning authority. It sought to advance knowledge and promote progress. Humans attempted to uncover natural laws and principles and study rationality and human nature. Separation of church and state.

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thomas hobbes

Argued that humans exist in a constant state of war and wanted individuals to voluntarily surrender some of their freedoms and rights to a governing society in exchange for protection and security.  He advocated for a strong centralized form of government led by an unchallengeable absolute. HE advocated that humans are motivated by self-interest and preservation.

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john locke

Advocated that individuals possess natural rights such as life, liberty, and property. He argued that these rights were inherent and come from nature NOT government. He argued that governments are created by the governed and are only there to protect natural rights. He believed that the power of government should be based on the consent of the people. He believed that humans are born without innate ideas or knowlede-blank slate and knowledge is acquired through experience. Religious freedom.

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philosophes

A group of enlightenment thinkers playing a crucial role in shaping the Europes in the 18th century. Each philosophes had their own ideas and committed to the progress of pursuit of knowledge.

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voltaire

Thought freedom of speech was very important, he believed that through rational thought and observation, humans could gain knowledge about the natural worlds and improve society. He fought for the abolition of torture and criticized absolute monarchy.

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montesquieu

Believed in the separation of powers and wanted a government with checks and balances.

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mary wollstonecraft

An advocate for women's rights. She argued for equal rights and education for woman.

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salon

Philosophes engaged in lively intellectual discussions and debates gathered in salons hosted by women.

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In what ways did Enlightenment thinkers challenge old ways of knowing or understanding the world?

They emphasized reason and advocated for the use of critical thinking and evidence-based reasoning. They sought to change the prior religious-centered world to explanations of science. They paved the way for the scientific revolution and built upon advancements in science leading to future discoveries. They questioned the role of absolute monarchs and challenged divine rights. They promoted religious tolerance and challenged religious hierarchy. They transformed society into an educational based and emphasized progress.

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What were the legacies (long term goals) of the Enlightenment?

Democracy, human rights, legal reforms (checks and balances), scientific method, religious freedom, secularism, education advancements, literacy, cultural and artistic movements, political revolutions

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The Estate System

An unfair social structure that divided people by their social classes. There were 3 distinct estates, the clergy, nobility, and peasantry. The peasantry was by far the largest but they were the most abused. The first and second estates held extreme amounts of power and the third estate faced all hardships.

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louis xvi

The very weak king of France, he was very cut off from the rest of France and spent all of France's money whilst taxing the poor. He became a mockery and people wanted to kill him.

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Robespierre

A voice for the 3rd estate and a great speaker. He started as a hero and a prominent member of the Jacobin Club. He was a radical leader for democratic reforms and the defense of the poor. Then he started the Reign of Terror where he and his gang started the committee of public safety. This group executed anyone who disagreed with them. He then went a little mad with power and tried to establish a supreme cult religion and people recognized his insanity and executed him.

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the reign of terror

A period of intense violence and repression characterized by its mass execution and suppression of perceived enemies.

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republic

The French Revolution resulted in the formation of the first republic. A republican form of government that replaced the monarchy. Napoleon then ruled french for a lil.

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nationalism

The belief that one's nation is better than everyone else’s which tends to be taken to the extreme and in detriment of other countries.

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peninsulares

A privileged position in the Latin Americas. A person in the social hierarchy of colonies referring to a spaniard born in spain but had migrated to the Americas.

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creoles

A position in Latin America below the peninsulares where a person was mixed of European and black decent. They typically had higher opportunities but faced limitation in highest levels of power. They later pushed a significant role in the push for independence from colonial rule.

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what were the causes for the revolutions in latin america?

Partially influenced by the enlightenment and its ideals of freedom, also influenced by the American and French revolutions. The societies in Latin America, controlled colonies, were characterized by extreme and unfair social hierarchies. The natives of the land faced extreme discrimination and exploitation. The groups were massively discontent especially the emerging middle class. The poorness of the countries did not help and people were being taxed too much. The Napoleonic wars disrupted authority and caused enough caos to spark revolution.

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factors of production

Refers to natural resources which were important for the development of industries, labor- the workforce, availability of a large and willing to work was crucial for the growth of industries, capital - financial resources available for industrial production. The accumulation of capital was vital for establishing factories.

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urbanization

The process by which an increasing number of people start to reside in urban areas leading to the growth of cities. It is driven by industrialization, economic opportunities, improved transportation, and better access to services. It results in higher population concentration, and the development of infrastructure and cultural change. It can lead to pollution.

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living/ working conditions (child labor)

Overcrowded housing, poor sanitation in cities and clean water was limited. There was a very unhygienic environment and air pollution was very toxic. There was long working hours where people would work typically 12 to 16 hours 6 days a week. There was low wage and poverty, there was dangerous working conditions as factories and mines were often hazardous. Young children would work as young as 6.

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in what ways did industrialization positively impact nations?

It lead to the development of several future remedies and medicines. It prompted the future faster than ever before.

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In what ways did industrialization negatively impact nations?

It used child labor and caused air pollution

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imperialism

expanding a country’s power over foreign nations which in the past has included nations colonizing small colonies through various means. Imperialism often leads to exploitation and cultural suppression of the affected area.

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cash crop

Agricultural crops are grown primarily for income rather than consumption. They are typically large-scale industrial cultivations. Cash Crops played a significant role in the economic systems of colonies as imperialization would use cash crops to extract wealth from their colonies.

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berlin conference

A meeting in 1884 where the top 14 European countries and the United States all came together to discuss the dividing of Africa between themselves. They discussed the countries at the expense of the African people. This led to the mindless plundering of land for natural resources which caused environmental damage and set Africa back in terms of advancing.

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sepoy mutiny

A major uprising in India against British rule. The civilians of India who were working for the British East India Company were massively discontent because they were forced to grow and harvest their raw materials for little to no pay. The rebel forces- sepoys. Angry soldiers, and peasants, fought against the BEIC troops.

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what were the motives of imperialism  (EMPIRE)

To drive Economics, Military advantages (such as secuting bases and trade routes- exerting dominance), to show Political power and demonstrates their influence. Ideological to improve and civilize backwards societies (spreading Western values), to convert nations to their Religion, to Explore foreign land.

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in what way (s) did imperialism impact the natives of a country?

Forced labor, poverty and limited economic opportunity, Natives were often displaced from their ancestral lands, loss of cultural heritage, loss of community, unequally treated and persecuted, undermined political beliefs of the land, new diseases killed many, poor living conditions, long lasting economic, cultural, and social effects.

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In what way (s) did imperialism contribute to greater competition among nations?

Nations were competing for who was the most economically powerful, had the biggest trade marker, most imperial gain, more geographical influence, more military power, territory was seen as a measure of a nation’s power and influence, who could civilize the most land.

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otto von bismarck

A mastermind in the Unification of Germany which was the attempt to unify German-speaking states under one country of Prussia- forming the German Empire. He was the leader in executing policies and military action which led to several states joining to form Germany. He was the prime minister of Prussia.

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realpolitiks

Bismarck’s belief in the concept of a political approach that prioritizes practical interests and political power over moral principles. The objective over the Ideal. States are driven by the pursuit of their own advantage.

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the franco prussian war

A war that helped pave the way for the Unification of Germany, it was conflict between France and Prussia because Bismark believed that a successful war with France would help to rally the German states behind Prussia. The battle ended ip leading to a powerful and unified German empire and a weak France.

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giuseppe garibaldi

A major player in the unification of Italy where he attempted to take over and conquer Italian states. His efforts and strong sense of nationalism and unity helped to create a unified Italy.

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camillo cavour

A key player in the unification of Italy through his role in shaping the political and landscape of italy. He implemented economic and administrative reforms, encouraged industrialization, modernized the legal system, and became influential. He also sought alliances and international support.

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what strategies were used by leaders to unite their nations? in what ways were they successful/unsuccessful?

By creating a national identity and symbols to create a sense of unity and unity under a common language and history. They were unsuccessful in the ways of maintaining authoritarian control, favoring a specific identity (such as speaking German or being catholic

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archduke ferdinand

The Archduke of Austro-Hungary who was assassinated by a Serbian, this led to the official start of the war as Germany and Austria started fighting Serbia and Britain backed Serbia up.

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MAIN causes of WWI

Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary.

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central powers

Germany and Austro-Hungary

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triple entente

France, Russia, and Britain

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