Neuro Exam 3

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Point-to-Point Synaptic Connection

1 / 280

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
281
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
281 Terms
1
New cards

Point-to-Point Synaptic Connection

Restricts synaptic communication (restricts flow of info/communication). Uncontrolled/non p2p would be a seizure

New cards
2
New cards

Secretory Hypothalamus Synaptic Connection

Stimulates and releases neurohormones. Give you widespread and extended influence over space and time

New cards
3
New cards

ANS Synaptic Connection

Provides divergence, presynaptic neuron that causes widespread postsynaptic neurons

New cards
4
New cards

Diffuse Modulatory Systems Synaptic Connection

Dopaminergic system that regulates movement, raphe nuclei, keeping us awake, mood elevated depending on what NT is involved

New cards
5
New cards

Hypothalamus Defect

Fatal disruption to body function. Failure to develop or disrupted during development. Cannot live without a hypothalamus.

New cards
6
New cards

Dorsal Thalamus Defect

Blind spot, lack of feeling. Upper quadrantanopia and feeling. Not as serious as hypothalamus defect.

New cards
7
New cards

The Secretory Hypothalamus and Homeostasis

Regulates body temperature and blood composition

New cards
8
New cards

Hypothalamus commands in cold weather

Shiver, goosebumps, turn blue. Shunts bloods to organs

New cards
9
New cards

Hypothalamus commands in hot weather

Turn red, sweat. Cool the body down by sweating (move liquid inside of body to outside and evaporate off in order to cool you down)

New cards
10
New cards

Oxytocin

"love hormone". lactation and decrease hypothalamic function. Expressed during sexual behavior, social recognition, ironically during ethnocentric behavior (committing racist acts)

New cards
11
New cards

Vasopressin

"ADH". Regulate blood volume and salt concentration. Leads to water retention by decreasing increased salt concentrations in the blood

New cards
12
New cards

Secretory Hypothalamus communication between Kidneys and Brain

Hypothalamus kicks off posterior pituitary gland production of ADH --> kidney produces renin --> releases angiotensin from liver --> go to the blood vessels and kidneys --> relay back up to the subfornical organ. The communication from the kidney will increase thirst. (increase ADH makes you thirst and continues the cycle/loop until you no longer feel thirsty)

New cards
13
New cards

Hypothalamic Control of Anterior Pituitary

Parvocellular pathway. Secrete hyperplasia tropic hormone --> portal circulation to either secrete or stop secreting hormone based on stimulation of the particular area.

New cards
14
New cards

Secretory Hypothalamus and Stress Response

Periventricular hypothalamus secrete CRH --> ACTH released into circulation --> ACTH stimulates cortisol (stress hormone) release from adrenal cortex

New cards
15
New cards

ANS

Sympathetic = fight Parasympathetic = flight

New cards
16
New cards

Somatic Motor System

Directly ends on skeletal muscle

New cards
17
New cards

Sympathetic Nervous System

Has an automatic or sympathetic ganglia

New cards
18
New cards

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Closer to actual muscle or gland that it's activating on and is closer to individual area that it's going to exert its control

New cards
19
New cards

Sympathetic division primarily uses what as a primary transmitter

Epinephrine

New cards
20
New cards

Parasympathetic division primarily uses what as a primary transmitter

Acetylcholine (releases much closer to actual organ)

New cards
21
New cards

Enteric division location

Lining of esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, and gallbladder

New cards
22
New cards

Enteric division composition

Myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus and submucous (Meissner's) plexus

New cards
23
New cards

Myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus

network of nerves between the two muscular layers (operates muscles)

New cards
24
New cards

Submucous (Meissner's) plexus

Controls activity of mucosal glands and muscle

New cards
25
New cards

Preganglionic NTs on ANS: ACh

Causing typical ACH to evoke a fast EPSP

New cards
26
New cards

Preganglionic NTs on ANS: Ganglionic ACh

Release of ganglion level activates slow EPSPs and IPSPs

New cards
27
New cards

Preganglionic NTs on ANS: Preganglionic terminals

Small EPSPs

New cards
28
New cards

Postsynaptic NTs: Parasympathetic

Release ACh = local effect

New cards
29
New cards

Postsynaptic NTs: Sympathetic

Release norepinephrine = far reaching effects

New cards
30
New cards

Postsynaptic NTs: Parasympathomimetic

Mimics or promotes ACh or inhibits norepinephrine

New cards
31
New cards

Postsynaptic NTs: Sympathomimetic

Mimics or promotes norepinephrine actions or inhibits ACh

New cards
32
New cards

What are the 4 diffuse modulatory systems of the brain

Noradrenergic Locus Ceruleus, Serotonergic Raphe Nuclei, Dopaminergic Sunstantia Nigra and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA), and Cholinergic Basal Forebrain and Brain Stem Complexes

New cards
33
New cards

Diffused modulatory systems of the brain: common principles of the 4 systems

Small set of neurons at core, arise from brain stem, one neuron influences many others (tons of divergence), and synapses release transmitter molecules into extracellular fluid

New cards
34
New cards

Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus

Projects to almost every part of brain. This nucleus is involved in regulation of attention, arousal, sleep-wake cycle, learning and memory, mood and brain metabolism. "blue spot" refers to blue color it has in fresh brain tissue that results from presence of cells with higher concentrations of melanin

New cards
35
New cards

What is moderated by Locus Coeruleus

Noradrenaline (aka norepinephrine). Stress and panic responses and how it moderates alertness level

New cards
36
New cards

Serotonergic Raphe Nuclei

Path: innervate many of the same areas as noradrenergic system Function: together with noradrenergic system, comprise the ascending reticular activating system

  • Particularly involved in sleep-wake cycles, and mood Activation: new, unexpected, nonpainful sensory stimuli

New cards
37
New cards

Dopaminergic Substantia Nigra and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)

Dopamine reward pathway. Projects to the striatum and facilitates the initiation of voluntary movements. VTA innervates circumscribed region of telencephalon

New cards
38
New cards

Cholinergic Systems: Basal Forebrain Complex and Pontomesencephalotegmental Complex

Head down to basal ganglia. Has to do a lot with learning and memory. Releases ACh as its primary transmitter. Regulates excitability of thalamic relay nuclei

New cards
39
New cards

Drugs and the Diffuse Modulatory Systems

Psychoactive drugs act on CNS Many drugs of abuse used because they mimic the structures of either serotonin or dopamine

New cards
40
New cards

Stimulants (cocaine & amphetamine)

Block reuptake Cocaine: increases amount of dopamine released and targets its reuptake Amphetamine: block norepinephrine and dopamine stimulants and stimulates dopamine release

New cards
41
New cards

Role of hypothalamus

Regulates homeostasis

New cards
42
New cards

Three components of neuronal response

Humoral response, visceromotor response, somatic motor response

New cards
43
New cards

Humoral response of hypothalamus

Blood

New cards
44
New cards

Visceromotor response of hypothalamus

Motor response in plexi in gut and down gut tube

New cards
45
New cards

Somatic motor response of hypothalamus

Things that make us seek out food, water, heat, cold

New cards
46
New cards

Motivated behavior examples of responses when body is cold

Body shivers, blood shunted away from body surface, urine production inhibited, body fat reserves - mobilizes

New cards
47
New cards

Motivated behavior of lateral hypothalamus

Initiates motivation to actively seek or generate warmth - homeostasis

New cards
48
New cards

Prandial state: anabolism

Take energy and store it as glycogen and triglycerides (nutrients)

New cards
49
New cards

Postabsorptive state: catabolism

Break down complex macromolecules

New cards
50
New cards

What state should be pushed when wanting to gain weight?

Prandial state

New cards
51
New cards

What state should be pushed when wanting to lose weight?

Postabsorptive state

New cards
52
New cards

Role of leptin hormone in regulation of body fat and feeding

Normalizes weight over time, regulates body mass even through forced starvation or feeding. Driven by hypothalamus

New cards
53
New cards

What part of the hypothalamus is involved with anorexia?

Lateral hypothalamic syndrome due to more leptin signaling

New cards
54
New cards

What part of the brain is involved with obesity?

Ventromedial hypothalamic syndrome due to less leptin signaling

New cards
55
New cards

What happens when leptin levels increase?

Arcuate neurons release alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone and cocaine and amphetamine related transcripts (anorexic peptides that diminish appetite), increases energy expenditure

New cards
56
New cards

Affects on periventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

Cause blood to diminish appetite

New cards
57
New cards

Affects on visceral motor of the intermediate grey of the spinal cord

Signal parts of the body to increase activity due to elevated leptin levels

New cards
58
New cards

Response to elevated leptin levels

Alpha melanocyte hormones send positive impulse to periventricular nucleus--> stimulates release of ACTH and thyrotropin from anterior pituitary. Alpha melanocyte hormone send negative response to lateral hypothalamic area

New cards
59
New cards

Response to decreased leptin levels

Neuropeptide Y and agouti related send negative signal to periventricular nucleus --> inhibit ACTH and TSH and activate parasympathetic division and stimulate feeding behavior --> stimulating lateral hypothalamic area

New cards
60
New cards

Lateral hypothalamic neurons stimulating feeding behavior contain:

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin

New cards
61
New cards

What is orexin released by?

Lateral neurons that make you hungry

New cards
62
New cards

What are the three phases of the model for short-term regulation of feeding

Cephalic, gastric, and substrate phases

New cards
63
New cards

Cephalic phase

Satiety signals low and orexigenic signals high, presented with food will increase interest in going after it. Releases ghrelin --> kick off neuropeptide Y and agouti related neurons in arcuate nucleus

New cards
64
New cards

Gastric phase

Stomach is full and distended, feeling of satiety. CCK released in intestines --> stimulates vagus nerve. Pancreas start releasing B cell products (insulin)

New cards
65
New cards

Substrate phase

Digestion phase, breaking stuff down

New cards
66
New cards

What phase is inulin levels at their highest?

Substrate phase

New cards
67
New cards

Changes in blood insulin levels before, during and after a meal

Insulin maximal when food is digested as glucose enters the bloodstream.

New cards
68
New cards

Why do we eat? Liking:

Hedonic reward to eating

New cards
69
New cards

Why do we eat? Wanting:

Drive reduction

New cards
70
New cards

Why do we eat? Electrical self-stimulation:

Experiments to identify sites of reinforcement

New cards
71
New cards

Effective sites for self-stimulation:

Trajectory of dopaminergic axons in the ventral tegmental area projecting to the forebrain

New cards
72
New cards

Why do we eat? Drugs that block dopamine receptors:

Reduce self-stimulation

New cards
73
New cards

Mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

Dopamine reward system in VTA that gets stimulated when eating things we like

New cards
74
New cards

Role of dopamine in motivation

Dopamine depleted animals "like" food but "don't want" food. Lack motivation to seek food but enjoyed when available

New cards
75
New cards

Stimulation of the dopamine axons

Produces craving for food without increasing the hedonic impact (won't make it taste better)

New cards
76
New cards

Changes in hypothalamic serotonin levels (low)

Postabsorptive period

New cards
77
New cards

Changes in hypothalamic serotonin levels (rise)

In anticipation of food

New cards
78
New cards

Changes in hypothalamic serotonin levels (spike)

During meals

New cards
79
New cards

Changes in hypothalamic serotonin level during mood elevation

Rise in blood tryptophan and brain serotonin

New cards
80
New cards

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa

Both accompanied by depression and try to supplement and stimulate serotonin release. Approached more as a psychiatric disorder not a hormonal eating disorder

New cards
81
New cards

Motivated behavior of drinking: pathways triggering volumetric thirst

Hypovolemia: decrease in blood volume. Inside mechanoreceptors in major blood vessels sensing that there's not enough fluid in the system --> stimulate vagus nerve --> nucleus of solitary tract and hypothalamus --> slow blood flow to kidneys and slow release of urine to trigger thirst

New cards
82
New cards

Motivated behavior of drinking: pathways triggering osmotic thirst

Hypertonicity: increase concentration of dissolved substances in blood (salt). Release of vasopressin (aka ADH), act with VLT --> affect vasopressin secreting magnocellular neurosecretory cells and communicate with posterior pituitary --> release blood to inhibit urine production

New cards
83
New cards

What happens if we do not have vasopressin?

Diabetes insipidus (large amounts of pale, watery urine)

New cards
84
New cards

What is a loss of insulin called?

Diabetes mellitus

New cards
85
New cards

Temperature regulation

Humeral visceromotor and somatic motor responses - hypothalamus will help drive

New cards
86
New cards

Humeral visceromotor response and temperature regulation

Neurons in medial preoptic area of hypothalamus

New cards
87
New cards

Somatic motor (behavioral) responses and temperature regulation

Neurons in lateral hypothalamic area

New cards
88
New cards

Process during a fall in temperature

Thyroid stimulating hormone released by anterior pituitary --> thyroxine gets released from thyroid gland --> increases metabolism

New cards
89
New cards

What is a genotype

What people argue "you are what you are when you're born"

New cards
90
New cards

Genotype for male

XY

New cards
91
New cards

Genotype for female

XX

New cards
92
New cards

Are X or Y chromosomes larger?

X

New cards
93
New cards

X and Y contain how many genes

1500 and 50 respectively

New cards
94
New cards

Where do x-linked diseases occur more and why?

More often in men than women. Women have more copies of all the genes, so have less chance of getting a genetic related disease because they have a better chance of having a good copy of the transcripts on the second gene.

New cards
95
New cards

SRY gene

Sex determining region of the Y chromosome, encodes for TDF (testes determining factor)

New cards
96
New cards

When do gonads develop?

Within the first 6 weeks, and promote many of the sex related hormones that drive genetic triggers and expression in genes for the person whether they be male or female

New cards
97
New cards

Where are major sex hormones (steroids) synthesized?

Cholesterol

New cards
98
New cards

Where are steroids (sex hormones) released?

Endocrine glands

New cards
99
New cards

Where do endocrine glands get regulated?

Pituitary gland

New cards
100
New cards

What is male hormone equivalent of aromatase into estradiol hormone for females?

Testosterone

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 59 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12711 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(266)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard171 terms
studied byStudied by 62 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
flashcards Flashcard62 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard111 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 253 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard111 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people