Ch. 10 Respiratory System

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main purpose of respiratory system

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main purpose of respiratory system

gas exchange

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bronchioles

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bronchus

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diaphragm

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glottis

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larynx

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lung

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nasal cavities

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pharynx

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trachea

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another word of inhalation

inspiration

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another word for exhalation

expiration

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inspiration + expiration

ventilation

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oxygen transported throughout the body by ___ system

cardiovascular

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why is oxygen needed in cells

cellular respiration

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exchange of gases between air and blood

external respiration

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exchange of gases between blood and tissue fluid

internal respiration

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transport gases to and from lungs and ___

tissues

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19
  • nasal cavities

  • pharynx

  • larynx

upper respiratory tract

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another word for nostrils

nares

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nares lead into

nasal cavities

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22

nasal cavities separated by ___ of bone and cartilage

septum

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large ___ in nasal cavities filter air

hairs

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membrane in the nasal cavities also moves stuff to the ___

pharynx

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stuff under the mucous that can cause nosebleeds and warms and moistens air

submucosa

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upper recesses of nasal cavities

odor receptors

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(tear ducts) drain into nasal cavities

lacrimal glands

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nasal cavities connect with ___

sinuses

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upper portion of pharynx = ___

nasopharynx

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part of pharynx: nasal cavities open above soft palate

nasopharynx

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part of pharynx: oral cavity opens

oropharynx

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part of pharynx: opens into larynx

laryngopharynx

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oral cavity and pharynx: protective ring; part of immune system

tonsils

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___ is normally open in the pharynx

larynx

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usually closed (opens upon swallowing)

esophagus

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made of cartilage; between pharynx and trachea

larynx

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mucosal folds supported by elastic ligaments

vocal cords

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slit between vocal cords

glottis

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apex of larynx: Adam’s apple

laryngeal prominence

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epiglottis

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glottis

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tongue

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vocal cords

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pitch regulated by ___ on these cords

tension

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more tension on vocal cords = narrower glottis = ___ pitch

higher

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less tension on vocal cords = thicker glottis = ___ pitch

lower

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volume dependent on how much cords ___

vibrate

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flap of tissue that prevents food from passing into the larynx

epiglottis

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larynx moves upward against epiglottis for ___

swallowing

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fancy term for throat

pharynx

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fancy term for windpipe; connects larynx and bronchi

trachea

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muscular ___ separates this from esophagus

wall

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trachea has connective tissue, smooth muscle, and C-shaped cartilage ___

rings

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prevent trachea from collapsing; allows esophagus to expand

C-shaped cartilage rings

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pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium; goblet cells on outer layer

mucous membrane

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in mucous membrane; produces mucus; traps debris

goblet cells

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mucus swept towards pharynx → away from lungs by ___

cilia

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air

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cilia

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epithelial cell

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goblet cell

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mucus

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particle

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tracheal lumen

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___ → tracheal wall contracts

cough

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___ destroys cilia

smoking

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inserting a tube because the trachea is blocked

tracheostomy

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trachea divides into right and left ___ bronchi → right and left lungs

primary

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primary bronchi branch into ___ bronchi → branch into bronchioles

secondary

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primary bronchi branch into secondary bronchi → branch into ___

bronchioles

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asthma attack → smooth muscle of ___ contract

bronchioles

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bronchioles lead to “elongated space enclosed by a multitude of air pockets, or sacs, called ___”

alveoli

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system of bronchi and bronchioles

bronchial tree

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center: trachea, heart, thymus, esophagus

thoracic cavity

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___ are on either side of the trachea

lungs

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right lung has ___ lobes, left has two (room for heart)

three

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right lung has three lobes, left has ___ (room for heart)

two

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lungs enclosed by ___ (layers of serous membrane → produce serous fluid)

pleurae

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lungs enclosed by pleurae (layers of ___ membrane → produce fluid)

serous

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inflamed pleurae

pleurisy

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___ sacs have capillaries

alveolar

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alveoli lined with ___

surfactant

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film of lipoprotein; lowers surface tension of water, prevents closing of alveoli

surfactant

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lungs collapse because infants lack this film

infant respiratory distress syndrome

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continuous ___ from pharynx to alveoli

column of air

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___ muscles lie between these ribs

intercostal

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diaphragm and connective tissue make up the floor of this

thoracic cavity

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lungs adhere to ___ by the pleura (space between pleurae: small, full of fluid)

thoracic wall

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constant temperature, pressure of gas is inversely proportional to volume

Boyle’s Law

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constant temperature, pressure of gas is ___ proportional to volume

inversely

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contracts

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decreases

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lungs

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outward

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trachea

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up and out

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down and in

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increases

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inward

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relaxes

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