HL Physics

studied byStudied by 3 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

absolute uncertainty

1 / 257

Tags and Description

258 Terms

1

absolute uncertainty

a quantity giving the extremes a measured value falls within

New cards
2

absolute zero

the temperature at which all random motion of molecules stops

New cards
3

absorption spectra

the set of wavelengths of photons absorbed by a substance

New cards
4

acceleration of free fall

the acceleration due to the pull of the Earth on a body

New cards
5

accurate

a measurement where the systematic error is small and so close to the "true" value

New cards
6

activity

the rate of decay of a radioactive sample

New cards
7

albedo

the ration of scattered to incident intensity of radiation

New cards
8

alpha particle

the nucleus of helium-4

New cards
9

alternating current (ac)

current in which electrons oscillate instead of moving with the same drift speed in the same direction

New cards
10

Amonton's law or Gay-Lussac's law

the relation between pressure and temperature of a fixed quantity of an ideal gas when the volume is kept constant

New cards
11

amplitude

the largest value of the displacement from equilibrium of an oscillation

New cards
12

angular frequency or angular speed

the ratio of angle turned to time taken

New cards
13

angular momentum

the product of mass, speed and orbit radius of a particle

New cards
14

angular separation

the angle that the distance between two objects subtends at the observer's eye

New cards
15

antinode

a point in a medium with a standing wave where the displacement is momentarily a maximum

New cards
16

anti-particle

a particle with the same mass as its particle but with all other properties opposite, such as electric charge

New cards
17

atomic (or proton) number

the number of protons in a nucleus

New cards
18

atomic mass unit

a unit of mass equal to 1/12 the mass of a neutral atom of carbon-12

New cards
19

average speed

the ratio of distance travelled to total time taken

New cards
20

average velocity

the ratio of displacement to total time taken

New cards
21

Avogadro constant

the number of particles in one mole

New cards
22

baryon

a particle made up of three quarks

New cards
23

baryon number

a conserved quantum number; it is assigned to each quark, and by extension to baryons

New cards
24

beta minus decay

a decay producing an electron and an anti-neutrino

New cards
25

beta plus decay

a decay producing a positron and a neutrino

New cards
26

binding energy

the minimum energy that must be supplied to completely separate the nucleons in a nucleus or the energy released when a nucleus is assembled

New cards
27

black body

a theoretical body that reflects none of the radiation incident on it and so absorbs all of it

New cards
28

blue-shift

a decrease in the observed wavelength

New cards
29

boiling

the change from the liquid to the vapour state at a specific constant temperature

New cards
30

Boyle's law

the relation between pressure and volume of a fixed quantity of an ideal gas when temperature is kept constant

New cards
31

capacitance

the charge that can be stored on a capacitor per unit voltage

New cards
32

centripetal acceleration

the acceleration due to a changing direction of velocity

New cards
33

centripetal force

a force pointing to the centre of a circular path

New cards
34

chain reaction

a self-sustaining reaction

New cards
35

charge carrier

charged particles that are able to move, creating an electric current

New cards
36

Charles' law

the relation between volume and temperature of a fixed quantity of an ideal gas when the pressure is kept constant

New cards
37

coefficient of dynamic friction

the ratio of the force of friction to the normal reaction force on a body while the body is sliding on a surface

New cards
38

coefficient of static friction

the ratio of the maximum force of friction that can develop between two bodies to the normal reaction force on a body while the body is at rest

New cards
39

coherent

sources whose phase difference is constant in time

New cards
40

compression

a point in a medium through which a wave is travelling that has maximum density

New cards
41

condensation

the change from the vapour to the liquid state

New cards
42

conduction

the transfer of heat through electron and molecular collisions

New cards
43

conservation of energy

the principle that energy cannot be destroyed or created but can only be changed from one form into another

New cards
44

conservation of momentum

when the net force on a system is zero, the total momentum of the system is constant

New cards
45

conserved

a quantity that states the same before and after an interaction

New cards
46

constructive interference

the superposition of two identical waves that arrive at a point in phase

New cards
47

control rod

a rod that regulates the the rate of energy release in a nuclear fission reactor by regulating the absorption of neutrons

New cards
48

convection current

motion of a fluid as a result of differences in fluid density

New cards
49

convection

the transfer of heat in fluids through differences in fluid density

New cards
50

Coulomb's law

the electric force between two point charges is proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of their separation

New cards
51

crest

a point on a wave of maximum displacement

New cards
52

critical angle

the angle of incidence for which the angle of refraction is a right angle

New cards
53

critical mass

the smallest mass of fissionable material that can sustain fission reactions

New cards
54

decay constant

the probability per unit time for a nucleus to decay

New cards
55

destructive interference

the superposition of two identical waves that arrive at a point 180 degrees out of phase

New cards
56

diffraction

the spreading of a wave past an aperture or an obstacle

New cards
57

diffraction grating

a series of very many and very narrow slits

New cards
58

diode

a device that lets current through it only in one direction

New cards
59

diode bridge rectifier

a circuit that achieved full-wave rectification

New cards
60

dipole

a pair of two equal and opposite electric charges

New cards
61

direct current (dc)

current in which electrons move in the same direction with the same average drift speed

New cards
62

discrete

energy that can take a set of specific values as opposed to a continuous range of values

New cards
63

dispersion

the dependence of refractive index on wavelength

New cards
64

displacement

the change in position; for an oscillation, the distance between the position of a particle and its equilibrium position

New cards
65

Doppler effect

the change in measured frequency when there is relative motion between source and observer

New cards
66

drag force

a force of resistance to motion

New cards
67

eddy currents

small induced currents in a conductor where the flux is changing that dissipate energy

New cards
68

efficiency

the ratio of useful work or power to input work or power

New cards
69

elastic potential energy

the energy stored in a spring when it is compressed or stretched

New cards
70

electric field strength

the electric force per unit charge experienced by a small point positive charge

New cards
71

electric potential

the work done per unit charge by and external agent in bringing a small point positive charge from infinity to a point

New cards
72

electric potential energy

the work that needs to be done by and external agent in order to bring a set of charges from where they were separated by an infinite distance to their current position

New cards
73

electric resistance

the ratio of the voltage across a device to the current through it

New cards
74

electromagnetic

an interaction mediated by the exchange of photons

New cards
75

electromagnetic waves

transverse waves moving at the speed of light in vacuum consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other

New cards
76

electroweak interaction

the interaction that is the unification of the electromagnetic and weak nuclear interactions

New cards
77

elementary particles

particles that have no constituents

New cards
78

emf

the work done per unit charge in moving charge across the terminals of a battery

New cards
79

emission spectrum

the set of wavelengths of photons radiated by a substance

New cards
80

emissivity

the ratio of the intensity radiated by a body to the intensity radiated by a black body of the same temperature

New cards
81

energy density

the energy that can be obtained from a unit volume of fuel

New cards
82

equation of state

the equation relating pressure, volume, temperature and number of moles of a gas

New cards
83

equilibrium

the state when the net force on a system is zero

New cards
84

equipotential surfaces

set of points that have the same potential

New cards
85

escape velocity

the minimum speed at launch so that a particle can move to infinity and never return

New cards
86

exchange particle

an elementary particle used as the intermediary of an interaction

New cards
87

excited state

a state of energy higher than the ground state

New cards
88

family lepton number

a quantum number assigned to each lepton in each family

New cards
89

Faraday's law

the induced emf in a loop is the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage through the loop

New cards
90

Feynman diagram

a pictorial representation of an interaction

New cards
91

first harmonic

the mode of vibration of a standing wave of lowest frequency

New cards
92

flux linkage

the magnetic flux in a loop times the number of turns in the loop

New cards
93

force pair

two forces acting on different bodies that are equal and opposite according to Newton's third law

New cards
94

fractional uncertainty

the ratio of the absolute uncertainty to the mean value of a quantity

New cards
95

free-body diagram

a diagram showing a body in isolation with all forces acting on it drawn as arrows

New cards
96

freezing

the change from the liquid to the solid state at a specific constant temperature

New cards
97

frequency

the number of full oscillations or waves in unit time

New cards
98

fuel rods

containers of nuclear fuels in a nuclear fission reactor

New cards
99

full-wave recitification

the turning of ac current into dc current during both halves of the cycle

New cards
100

gamma ray

a photon

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 160 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 126 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 76 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 181234 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(731)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 70 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard177 terms
studied byStudied by 77 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard81 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 142 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard85 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard203 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 137 people
Updated ... ago
3.8 Stars(5)
flashcards Flashcard78 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)