PSYC 475 exam 3

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cognitive abilities

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104 Terms

1

cognitive abilities

capabilities related to the acquisition and application of knowledge in problem solving

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Binet

published first useful test of general mental ability; broke kids up into 'bright' and 'dull' by how they compared with both their chronological age and mental age

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Charles Spearman (1863-1945)

British psychologist who advanced the theory that a general intelligence factor, called the g factor, is responsible for overall intellectual functioning

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two-factor theory of intelligence

Spearman's theory suggesting that every task requires a combination of a general ability (which he called g) and skills that are specific to the task (which he called s)

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Thurstone

7 primary mental abilities

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7 primary mental abilities

word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory

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Cattell

Crystallized fluid intelligence

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8

crystallized intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

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fluid intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

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WAIS

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

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11

Wonderlic Test

-test of cognitive ability and IQ -used in the NFL draft to test cognitive ability

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Raven's Progressive Matrices

an intelligence test that emphasizes problems that are intended not to be bound to a particular language or culture

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Applicant Reactions

A job applicant's perspective regarding the selection procedures they encounter and the employer that uses them

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14

measuring cognitive ability with video games

r=.68 for sokoban score

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15

ways to reduce subgroup difference

use a predictor battery of cognitive and noncognitive predictor change the mode in which questions and the type of responses required pre-test coaching or allow reapplication banding: instead of suing continuous scores, create different classes of respondents, just like we use A, B, C, and D for the final grace

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16

intelligence

ability to derive information, learn from experience, adapt to the environment, understand, and correctly utilize thought and reason

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cognitive ability and job performance

Cognitive ability has a strong positive effect on Job Performance

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2nd best predictor because cog. ability predicts learning about your job, and job knowledge is they key driver of job performance

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19

moderating role of job complexity

as job complexity increases, the validity of cognitive ability and perceptual ability increases as job complexity increase, the validity of psychomotor ability decreases

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20

correlates of intelligence

job performance and training performance, occupational attainment, income, academic performance, accidents, mortality, divorce, delinquency, criminal behavior, adjustment

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21

Binet's test emphasized

memory, imagery and imagination, attention and comprehension

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22

History of Intelligence Testing

1904: Alfred Binet had to identify French children's "capacity to learn"

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23

The SAT

Scholastic Aptitude Test - a test that measures the critical thinking mathematical, reasoning, and writing skills students need to do college-level work.

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Spearman

proposed that general intelligence is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis (he made up factor analysis)

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Thurstone's primary mental abilities

our intelligence may be broken down into seven factors: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory

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Verbal Comprehension

refers to a person's capacity to understand and use written and spoken language

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word fluency

how easily we produce verbal descriptions of things

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space

any test in which the task is to visualize and mentally manipulate an object in a two or three dimensional space

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number

tests that require the subject to rapidly and accurately perform calculations

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memory

ability to memorize quickly

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reasoning

tests requiring the subject to discover rules or principles

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perceptual speed

ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately

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33

not much more than g

g predicted core technical performance and general soldering proficiency with a correlation of .63 and .65. adding more specific abilities increases the correlation by no more than .02

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more than g

differentially weighting specific validities in a way that minimizes overall subgroup differences without compromising composite test validity

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35

subgroup mean difference

differences between racial groups in cognitive ability testing- can lead to adverse impact

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36

perspective 1 of personality

personality is inside of us, consisting of -temperaments -interpersonal strategies personality is our social reputation

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Temperaments are

genetically controlled dispositions that determine the fundamental pace and mood of a person's actions

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interpersonal strategies

approaches that a person has learned "to deal with others and find their way in the world"

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socioanalytic theory of personality

Humans are biologically wired to live in social groups that are variously organized into status hierarchies

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40

identity

one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles (the actor's perspective)

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reputation

An idea held by the public about something or someone (the observer's perspective)

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42

observer ratings of personality mroe strongly predict

overall job perfromance than self ratings - specifically coworker rated extraversion and conscientiousness and supervisor rated neuroticism were predictive of CWB beyond self rated personality

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43

Big Five

openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

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big factor and factor analysis

traits were found through a factor analysis

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Openness

willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences

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Conscientiousness

the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability

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Neuroticism

degree of emotional instability or stability

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Agreeableness

how trusting, good-natured, cooperative, and soft-hearted one is

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Extraversion

A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive

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50

HEXACO model

The HEXACO model is an alternative to the Five-Factor Model. The HEXACO model includes six traits, five of which are variants of the traits included in the Big Five (Emotionality [E], Extraversion [X], Agreeableness [A], Conscientiousness [C], and Openness [O]). The sixth factor, Honesty-Humility [H], is unique to this model.

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51

Honesty-Humility (HEXACO)

sincere, honest, faithful VS. greedy, pretentious, hypocritical, boastful

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Emotionality

emotional, oversensitive, faithful, anxious VS brave, tough, self-assured, stable

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Extraversion (HEXACO)

outgoing, sociable, cheerful vs shy, passive, reserved

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agreenableness (HEXACO)

patient, tolerant, lenient vs. ill tempered, quarrelsome, stubborn, angry

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conscientiousness (HEXACO)

Disciplined diligent thorough precise VS reckless lazy irresponsible absent-minded

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openness to experience (HEXACO)

intellectual, creative, innovative, vs. shallow, unimaginative, conventional

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dark triad

Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy

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Machiavellianism

the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means

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psychopathy

impulsivity and thrill seeking combined with low empathy and anxiety

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narcissism

excessive self-love and self-absorption

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personality change_rank order

rank order usually does not change

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62

which big five trait is assciated the most with life satisfaction

neuroticism

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63

why use personality for hiring?

in job analyses, if you ask incumbents what are required for successful performance, you will often hear soft skills - these are personality traits

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64

which personality predicts job performance the best?

conscientiousness robustly predicts job performance, across job types

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emotional stability valditiy

.43

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extraversion-ambition validity

.35

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agreeableness validity

.34

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conscientiousness valditiy

.36

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openness to experience valdiity

.34

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70

Faking

exaggerating your responses to a personality test in a socially desirable fashion

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71

prevention of faking

-forced choice measurement

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72

forced-choice measurement

-forced to choice between two good choices or bad choices in a measure

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grit

higher order construct consisting of two lower order factors (perseverance and passion for long term goals) that are different from conscientiousness

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grit: consistency of interests

-I often set a goal but later choose to pursue a different one

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issues with grit

grit research may have fallen victim to the jangle fallacy and that grit as currently measured is simply a repackaging of conscientiosuness of one of the facets of conscientiousness

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76

emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

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Mixed Model of Emotional Intelligence

combines abilities with personality traits through personal and social competencies

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78

Ability model of emotional intelligence

Reason about emotions and use emotional knowledge to facilitate thinking and performance

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Four Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence

A model that outlines what an emotionally intelligent individual does:

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80

Perceiving emotions

recognizing them in faces, music, and stories

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facilitating thought using emotion

select problems based on how one's ongoing emotional state might facilitate cognition, leverage mood swiings , generate emotions as a means to relate to experiences of another person

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understanding emotions

predicting them and how they may change and blend

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83

managing emotions

knowing how to express them in varied situations

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84

vocational interests

the type of professions you are interested in

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85

vocational interests are trait-like

reflecting a person's preferences for behaviors, situations, contexts in which activities occur, and/or the outcomes associated with the preferred activities

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86

vocational interests are contextualized

-we mean that interests always have an object. individuals are not interested in same way that they may be extraverted or conscientious

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87

-they are interested in something, an activity that implies the kind of environment or a kind of environment that implies a certain activity

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88

RIASEC model

An interest framework summarized by six different personality types including realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional.

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89

Realistic (RIASEC)

Enjoys practical, hands-on, real-world tasks. Tends to be frank, practical, determined, and rugged.

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Investigative (RIASEC)

enjoy abstract, analytical, theory-oriented tasks

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Artistic (RIASEC)

Enjoys entertaining and fascinating others using imagination. Tends to be original, independent, impulsive, and creative.

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Social (RIASEC)

enjoy helping, serving, or assisting others

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Enterprising (RIASEC)

Enjoys persuading, leading, or outperforming others. Tends to be energetic, sociable, ambitious, and risk-taking.

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Conventional (RIASEC)

Enjoys organizing, counting, or regulating people or things. Tends to be careful, conservative, self-controlled, and structured.

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95

Holland's Theory of Occupational Choice

there are 6 basic personality types

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96

currently status interest research

  1. Personality trait theory (e.g., Costa & McCrae, 1990) views interests downstream from personality traits 2. Vocational interest research is rarely published in mainstream psych journals; it has few active researchers; research has been mostly directed at measurement. 3. Vocational interests are primarily associated with career entry and the field of career guidance. 4. Most I/O people (esp. pre-2012) still think it doesn't predict any job outcomes of importance.

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97

Vocational interests and satisfaction

affects...

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98

vocational interests and change

-Rank-order of interests remained unchanged during much of adolescence, and increased dramatically during the college years (age 18-21.9), where it appeared to plateau for the next two decades. in WWI, US military screened and classified millions of men using army alpha exam

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99

post-hoc detection

-social desirability measure -bogus items -response latency -person fit -mixture model

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100

person-environment fit

The extent to which the environment is tailored to our biological tendencies and talents. In developmental science, fostering this fit between our talents and the wider world is an important goal.

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