Advanced Nutrition Exam

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upwards of 90% of this electrolyte is in ionized from in blood

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1

upwards of 90% of this electrolyte is in ionized from in blood

phosphate

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2

the largest electrolyte in the ICF is

phosphate

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3

which factor does not take part in regulating the output of fluid when ECF volume is low

insulin

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4

the dominant negative ion in the ECF (plasma and interstitial)

Chloride

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5

the dominant caption in the ECF is

sodium

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6

which electrolyte might decrease in the ECF with hydrogen ions

potassium

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7

this electrolyte in high concentration can induce sudden cardiac death

potassium

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8

which is not an essential function of calcium

fluid shift and balance

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9

this enzyme excretion in urine is regulated by ADH-ANP aldosterone

sodium

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10

which is not true in hypertonicity of ECF?

movement of water into ECF from other compartments

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11

which resistant starches are crystallized

R2 and R3

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12

which application is correct in diverticulitis

reduced fiber diet

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13

which hormonal changes occur in response to high blood pressure

increased insulin, decreased glucagon

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14

the transporter liver cells facilitates fructose uptake

GLUT5

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15

in what form do carbohydrates enter the bloodstream

monosaccharides

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16

which polysaccharide haas both soluble and insoluble characteristics

hemicellulose

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17

these compounds combine to initiate citrate/ TCA cycle are

oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA

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18

the rate controlling enzyme is glycolysis is

phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)

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19

which is not an irreversible step enzyme in gluconeogenesis

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

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20

which is most dependent on the product NADPH from the penthouse phosphate pathway for production from oxidation

mammary gland

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21

in what organ compartment are the enzymes that oxidize glucose located

cytoplasm matrix

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22

what tissue capable of glycogenesis cannot contribute tip blood glucose levels during fasting due to absence of the enzyme glucose 6 phosphates

muscle

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23

which process does insulin stimulate

glycogenesis

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24

glycemic load is a measure of

quanitity and quality of carbohydrate in food

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25

the SGLT 1 active transport is important in the mutation associated with

Glucose galactose malabsorption

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26

fructose transport into specialized cells such as cardiac muscle is facilitated by

GLUT 4

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27

the enzyme needed to hydrolyze the alpha 1,6 bond off amylopectin is

isomaltase

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28

in what form do carbohydrates enter the bloodstream

monosaccharides

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29

what is the most stored homopolysaccharide in animal cells

glycogen

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30

why is amylase unable digest cellulose

it does not recognize. the point of hydrolysis

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31

the function of the amino acid tyrosine includes all but

synthesis of serotonin

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32

sarcopenia means

loss in body mass/fat tissue

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33

what is the key role of SAM in human physiology

single methyl donor

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34

the protein reduces oxidants like peroxide radicals to water is

glutathione

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35

which is not aa neurotoxin found in phenylketonuria

phenyl citrate

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36

maple syrup disease is caused by failure in branched alpha kept acid dehydrogenase in

skeletal muscle

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37

the enzymatic digestion of macronutrients binds is by the chemical process (apple)

hydrolysis

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38

which compounds should be restricted in tyrosinemia

phenylanine; tyrosine

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39

which is not a functional category of proteins

inhibitor

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40

a gastric tumor cell secretes a compound that dentures proteins. which compound is expected to increase in the gastric lumen

hydrochloric acid

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41

which amino acid is not involved in the pathology of maple syrup urine disease

lysine

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42

which macronutrients can reduce the demand for amino acid degradation for ATP synthesis

carbohydrates

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43

which is not a site for protein degradation in a cell

Golgi apparatus

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44

which is not a biogenic amine

oxaloacetate

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45

the peptide (methionine-alanine-lysine) is unique for what reason

has disulfide bonds

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46

which of the following changes does not occur with age

increased body mass

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47

tripeptide found in the blood circulation of a person with normal gastrointestinal function is less likely to be from

the enterocytes

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48

what happens to tripeptides and dipeptides that are absorbed by the enterocytes

degraded to amino acids

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49

as a nutritionist, which us the most expedient means to prevent amino acid related illness in an infants with a gene mutation that causes metabolic derangement

exclude it from the diet

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50

aminopeptidase cleaves peptide bonds adjacent to

N-terminal amino acid

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51

which is the main amino acid transport mechanism in the. baasolateral membrane of enterocytes

ATPase/K/Na pump

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52

which enzyme activates all the proteases in the small intestine including itself

pancreatic trypsin

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53

which factor distinguished electrolytes from non electrolytes

form covalent bonds

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54

which might render the most effective skin treatment among carotenoids?

beta carotene

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55

Thee micelle transport of vitamins E into the enterocyte occur by this transport mode

by passive transport

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56

Vitamin A are stored primarily in these cells?

stellate cells

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57

This provitamin vitamin is important in cell differentiation and proliferation

beta carotene

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58

which of the following is not a classic result of vitamin A deficiency

spinal bifida occulta

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59

activation of vitamin D2 occurs in this organ

kidney

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60

which fat-soluble vitamin regulate the differentiation of stem cells in bone tissue?

vitamin D3

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61

what is the main characteristic of rickets?

growing bones metric fail to mineralize properly

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62

which is the reference compound for the vitamin A activity and RDA?

retinol

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63

which is incorrect about vitamin D?

inhibits the differentiation of hair follicles and skin cells

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64

which vitamin E property makes it unique for cell membrane storage

influence gene expression

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65

why does vitamin K. have high toxicity tendency?

they are stored in adipocytes

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66

which vitamin E properly makes it. unique for cell membrane storage?

antioxidant capacity

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67

vitamin E reduces heart disease primarily through

reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation

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68

which of these condition mine one not find vitamin E deficiency

colitis

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69

vitamin E deficiency might result in all except

enact skeletal muscle cell membrane

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70

which is an unlikely means of excreting vitamin E from the body

hair loss

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71

which form of vitamin k has high propensity for toxicity in large amounts

menadione

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72

what is the chemical name of plant sources vitamin K

phylloquinone

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73

vitamin K deficiency will prevent ___ of the clotting factors

carboxylation

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74

why do newborns receive vitamin k injection at birth

to prevent microvascular bleeding

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75

____ is important in releasing vitamin E from complexed lipids in the GI tract

lipases

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76

the length of time advised in class to give zinc for wound healing is?

14 weeks

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77

which might not be present in iodine deficiency

myxedema

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78

which is unlikely to be seen in cretinism

normal growth pattern

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79

This mineral has anabolic growth effect?

iodine

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80

copper deficiency in the organ systems due to chromosome aberration is?

Menkes disease

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81

Deficiency of this nutrient high be seen in long-term total parenteral feeding?

selenium

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82

the nutrient can decrease dental carries

fluoride

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83

discolored teeth might be symptomatic of excess levels of this mineral

fluoride

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84

this nutrient enhances insulin activity and glucose tolerance?

chromium

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85

this nutrient is important in the metabolism of methionine and arginine

arsenic

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86

the most potent vitamin A is

retinol

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87

which vitamin A enters portal blood directly and attach to albumin for transport

retinoic acid

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88

toxicity of this vitamin manifests as hair loss, ataxia, dry itchy, and flaky skin

vitamin A

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89

the lesser amount of vitamin D absorbed by the intestine is transported by

chylomicron

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90

osteomalacia may present in deficiency of all except one

Magnesium

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91

which is not a secondary storage site for vitamin E

heart

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92

this nutrient may be restricted during warfarin therapy

vitamin K

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93

which specialized organelle in cells makes ribosomes

nucleolus

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94

which aspect of nutritional genomic studies how nutrient influence gene activities?

nutrigenomics

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95

the single nucleotide polymorphism in phenylketonuria?

Phenylalanine hydroxylase

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96

the disease cause by mutation of 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene(MTHFR gene) can be treated with high doses of this nutrient?

folic acid

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97

which is not an example of how a latent gene interaction with environment can result in disease

sickle cell anemia

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98

which compound is key to the inflammatory process in cells

arachidonic acid

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99

vitamin a and carotenoids reach the liver by what means

coupled to ceruloplasmin

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100

gene mutation in the small intestine prevents the absorption of vitamin D. What is not a treatment option for the person?

supplement vitamin D capsule

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