19th Century European History Study Guide Thing

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The German Customs Union, where the millions upon millions of german states are able to trade among each other with no tariffs or nothing

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protective tariffs

tariffs that are placed on foreign imports to prevent severe competition; encourages growth within a community

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essentially any financial asset → trading, working, debt, etc.

example, bourgeoisie had capital to spend on stuff

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domestic markets

SuPplY anD DemAnD

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the business cycle

The overall fluctuation of GDP over time

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Dominant Bourgeoisie ideology during 19th century

  • The protection of individual liberty → to greatest happiness for the greatest number

  • “Negative liberty” → freedom from interference

  • Positive liberty → the freedom to get to do things

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Dominant Traditional Ruling Elite Ideology (cause they don’t want to lose their job :o) → also like poor poor peasants

  • Things are fine right now, change is dangerous

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Fringe-radical idea at beginning of 19th century

  • end of 19th century = dominant

  • Popular among poor, urban workers

  • Progress through rational social change

  • Worth and rationality of all people

  • Tabula rasa - people formed through their experiences

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My country is good. I am part of my country. Go france :)

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Dude, I just want to FEEEEEL

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utopian socialism

Early form of socialism

  • Describe what the goal is like

  • Everybody has different ideas of what the world should look like

What the ideal socialist life is like

→ for example, a place where you don’t have to do anything

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marxism (a.k.a. scientific socialism)

Who owns the stuff?

History starts when a group of men claims stuff → create classes

  • Class struggle

The state should have the stuff → Feudalism → capitalism → communism

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David Ricardo

One of the economic theorists

  • you cannot change the fact that poor are poor

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John Stuart Mill

  • Happiness to all

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Edmund Burke

  • Change sucks but i guess we need it

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Charles Fourier

  • Equality in phalanxes

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Karl Marx

the guy who came up with marxism → the ideal goal is communism

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Francisco de Goya

Enlightenment guy (Believed in French Revolution)

  • Hated absolute monarchy

  • Continued to collect checks from the royal family while making fun of them

that one painting where the monarchs look derpy

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Caspar David Friedrich

  • Religious + spiritual contemplation of nature

  • Single-handedly made landscape paintings popular

man carried the landscape art

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Eugene Delacroix

  • Making fun of Jacque Louis David (Death of Socrates)

  • Reaction against neoclassical norms

  • No moral (looks dope tho)

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reform socialism

  • All you need is a real, democratic society

  • Poor people will vote rich people out of existence

  • Society where government controls capital and uses capital for the betterment of society

“guys, please, let’s just vote it out like a civil society”

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revolutionary socialism

  • Democracy WILL NOT WORK

  • Rich people control the media and systems and will use ideology to make sure that poor people cannot vote

  • Only way is to violently rise up and kill the bourgeoisie


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Klemens von Metternich

At this point, an old guy who refused to make any changes, so was booted (Germany)

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The Holy Alliance

Austria, Russia, and Prussia being buds. If revolution, then they will step in to stop revolution. except that one time austria completely ignored russia, but shhhhhh

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The Concert of Europe

the agreement between countries to step in to stop revolutions and place the previous monarchs on the throne. became relatively irrelevant after this time period though

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  • young italy movement continues to spread nationalist ideas throughout italy → more revolution

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What were the basic tenets of Liberalism, which  societal interests did they tend to represent?

Free Market :D

Constitutionalism :D (rights rights rights)

Democracy D: (only tax payers should vote)

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What was the Liberal stance on addressing the poverty and inequality resulting from industrialization?

The poor people should not be able to vote. Just read them the bible since giving them food and crap will lead to them multiplying more.

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What were the basic tenets of Conservatism, which societal interests did they tend to represent?

Minimize societal change

Tradition and social hierarchy :D

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What was the difference between hardcore conservatives, like Metternich, and moderate conservatives, like Burke?

Diehard conservatives -

Everything should go back to the way it was

  • Resist all change

Moderate conservatives -

  • Slow, gradual reform building on traditions

  • Little changes all the time instead of one giant explosion

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What were the primary concerns of socialism?

The growing inequality and injustice for poor, urban workers during the Industrial Revolution sparked the growth of socialism.

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What was the main difference between utopian and scientific socialism?

For utopian socialism, the schemes were generally unworkable and all fantastical. Scientific laid an achievable base for the future (although still was not quite specific).

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What are the essential ideas of nationalism?

Each nation should govern itself without the intervention of other nations. The overall feeling of being connected with other people of the same nation.

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What are some different ways that the idea of the nation was formulated and how did the political implications of the formulations differ?

Improved transport made people realize that some people share similar backgrounds and values to them while others were different

Better communication

  • the newspaper → newspapers have to have a language, which means that people were grouped by language

→ larger imagined community (outside of local)

French Revolution

Nationalism spread throughout the continent after Paris

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What was the political impact of nationalism in Europe from 1830 - 1871?

Gave people a sense of identity and unity

  • increased competition among nation-states

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How can Romanticism be seen as a reaction against industrialization and the failure of the French Revolution?

New Values

  • Nature over civilization

  • Emotion over reason

  • Individual over society

escaping modern realities → against the rationalization that was popular during the industrial revolution

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The Congress of Vienna

the diplomatic meeting between the powers of europe to decide how to maintain the balance of power

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The Greek War of Independence

Greece is finally relevant. Greece revolted against Turkey, and eventually became independent from it.

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Revolutions of 1830


  • Successful liberal resistance in Western Europe (France and England)

  • Failure to address working class concerns in west

  • Failed Liberal-Nationalist uprisings in the Central Europe (Italy, Portugal)

  • Belgium and Greece emerge as independent nations

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Revolutions of 1848

Theme: how do the governments balance stability and modernization?

  • If you industrialize too fast, you risk overcrowding, shock, revolution

  • If you modernize too slow, you fall behind

The turning point that failed to turn

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Charles X

French monarch that showed up after Louis XVIII

A goober

  • Rising food prices due to poor harvest

  • Dissolution of Chamber → even more liberal returns in election

  • Four Ordinances: new election laws favoring conservatives, censorship of press, redo of election

  • July: spontaneous mass protests in Paris → Charles force to flee the country

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Louis Philippe

New constitutional monarch…this time, Louis Philippe

  • Slightly widen franchise (still less than 1% of population, property restrictions remain in place)

  • doesn’t really address any of the actual problems

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Young Italy

  • Northern Italian resentment of Habsburg rule

  • Growing sense of Italian unity

  • Growing liberalism among italians

→ several northern provinces declare independence from Austria

  • Italian unification attempt

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Rotten Boroughs

  • New cities receive minimal representation

  • Old boroughs receive inflated representation (rotton boroughs)

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The Reform Bill of 1832

Conservatives fear civil war → pass the reform bill of 1832

  • Redrawn districts based on population

  • Small increase in franchise 1 in 5 adults males qualified

  • British politics now split between liberals and conservatives

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The Second Republic (France)

  • Louis-Philippe flees France → Second Republic declared by bourgeois liberals who claim to speak for the revolution

  • Provisional government formed: only one worker “Albert” in new government

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Government workhouses

  • Attempts to address workers concerns

  • Commission of workers

  • Government workhouses

→ workers from all around france goes into workhouses and goes bankrupt

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Albert the worker

The one regular guy in a group of bourgeoisie. Albert will surely save us

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  • Political:

  • Universal manhood suffrage, parliamentary salaries, secret ballot, annual elections

  • People’s Charter: millions of signatures, no response for parliament

  • Economic:

  • Workers organizations (unions), strikes

  • Limited success

  • Gender:

  • Some demand political rights for women

  • Many support the EXCLUSION of women from political and economic activates  “bread winners”

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The Frankfurt Assembly

(german philadelphia)

  • Representatives elected by all German states including Austria and Prussia


  • Establish a liberal constitutional monarchy

  • German unification

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Lajos Kossuth

Budapest → demand Hungarian independence → _______ defeats Habsburg forces → crushed by Russian Army

  • Highly organized hungarian army

  • Defeat habsburg army

  • Declare independent

  • Russia beats hungary → gives it back to austria

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Which ideological movements would have been most pleased with the Peace settlements reached in the Congress of Vienna? Why would the others have been displeased?

The Peace settlements reached in the Congress of Vienna were primarily conservative, as they were looking to destroy any uprisings in other countries, along with restoring previous monarchs to the throne. Ideologies such as liberalism and socialism may have been displeased since (especially liberalism) advocated for change in the government.

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What changes helped to destabilize the diplomatic settlements reached during the Congress of Vienna?

  • Creation of French Empire (1852)

  • Crimean War (1853-1856)

    • Russia invaded Ottoman Empire

  • Italian Unification (1860-1866)

  • German Unification (1871)

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How did the members of Concert of Europe work together to maintain the status quo in the first half of the 19th century?

Strict adherence to conservatism; the countries attempted to crush rebellions across the European continent and not take any land

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What factors lay behind the 1830 revolutions in France, Italy, Poland and Belgium?

Rise of romantic nationalists

  • rise of liberals who wanted change in the government

  • economic instability (as always)

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Which ideologies were the driving forces behind the 1830 Revolutions in France, Italy, Poland and Belgium?

liberals were often revolting against conservative monarchs/governments

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What were the outcomes of the 1830 revolutions in France, Italy, Poland and Belgium?

Belgium - independent

France - Successful liberal resistance

Poland - still split (nommed by russia)

Italy - Failed Liberal-Nationalist uprisings

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What factors lay behind the 1848 revolutions in France, Germany, and Austria

France - general money bad (two failed harvests)

Germany - split up into many pieces, so intellectual bourgeoisie uprising

Austria - different states of Austria rebel due to nationalism

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Which ideologies were the driving forces in these revolutions?

Socialism was the main ideology

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What were the outcomes of these revolutions?

Austria → somehow managed to keep it together

  • slow decline

France → elects Louis Napoleon

  • turns out to be a conservative clown

Germany → ALMOST becomes constitutional

  • then doesn’t

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How was Britain able to avoid the sort of large scale revolutions that rocked the continent in 1830 and 1848?

  • success of reform political measures

  • non-violent Chartist movements

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The Crimean War

Marks the end of the Concert of Europe (Russia invades the Ottomans → i forgot they existed ngl)

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Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)

the french leader during the crimean war. He wants to be flashy and look good in front of france, so he’ll join just about any easy-to-win war

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“A direct vote in which the entire electorate is invited to accept or refuse a proposal.” according to google anyway

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Baron Haussmann

“French official…chosen by Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive urban renewal program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris”

→ now those roads are exactly why France was screwed over by Germany later

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using any practical method to achieve political goals

  • Don’t worry about ideology

  • Don’t worry about morality


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the area of Italy that planned to unify northern italy

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Camillo Cavour

prime minister of piedmont sardinia → actually did stuff like plan

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Giuseppe Garibaldi

the general that overthrows Sicily and then willingly gives all of italy to Kingdom of Italy

what a great guy

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Otto von Bismarck

Reactionary Prussian Aristocrat


Goal: Unify Germany while keeping the Prussia Aristocracy and Monarchy in charge

(Realpolitik guy)

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The Austro-Prussian War

Prussia provokes Austria by body-blocking them from their own territory. Austria declares war and Prussia demolishes them

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The North German Confederation

After Prussia wiped the floor with Austria, the little tiny protestant states in Germany combine with Prussia

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The Franco-Prussian War

Essentially, Bismarck annoys France until France declares war on Prussia

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The German Empire

Where Prussia went around waging a bunch of wars (mainly by poking at Austria and France) to collect the German states like pokemon, then made one giant germany

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The Reichstag

The German Parliament

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Gladstone and Disraeli

The Liberal and Conservative leaders of Britain;

  • Liberal guy was pretty boring (liked Laissere fair economics and thought that only smart rich dudes should be in charge)

  • Conservative guy was clearly Victoria’s favorite (gasp, was Jewish)

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Austria-Hungary (The Dual Monarchy)

The combination of Austria and Hungary, where there are basically two separate kingdoms

  • satisfies the Hungarians, but everybody else is still mad

  • slows down industrialization :0

  • does keep empire together…

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Alexander II

The Czar of Russia

  • Inherits russia 1855

  • Attempt to modernize russia

fails and gets killed off

(man tried…)

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Realism (cultural movement)

Focuses on ugly life (they though romanticism was escapist)

  • Art should serve a purpose

  • Art should show progress


Depicting everyday life of normal people


Showing the world as it really was

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Charles Dickens

Pretty famous writer and social critic; wanted to help the poor

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Fyodor Dostoevsky

Russian novelist

“Orthodox Christianity and of Utopian Socialism.”

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Jean-Francois Millet

Realism painter

  • painted Gleaners (1857)

    • poor women

    • portray lowest of the low

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Gustave Courbet

Realism painter (painted Bonjour, 1854)

  • painted normal people doing normal things

  • Funeral at Ornans (put normal people at epic scale like royals)

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Idea that absolutely any justifiable fact can be mathematically and rationally proven (against metaphysics or deism)

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Charles Darwin

Person that first came up with evolution

  • we are actually related to animals and plants

church and other catholics freaked out and got pretty mad

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Social Darwinism

Using Idea of Natural Selection to justify inequality and imperialism

  • Racists and capitalists took Darwin’s ideas and used them for racism and capitalism

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The Cult of Domesticity

Value in upper and middle classes where women should remain in the household

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The Crystal Palace

Setting of the first World's Fair in 1851

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The Workers International

“international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations”

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The Social Democratic Party

“It is a left-wing political ideology that advocates for a peaceful democratic evolution from laissez-faire or crony capitalism towards social capitalism sometimes also referred to as a social market economy.”

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Das Kapital

  • How to take down capitalism by learning capitalism

→ explaining capitalism

→ one of first economic histories

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What effect did the Crimean war have on European diplomacy?

So the Concert of Europe is nonexistent now…congrats

“ decline of international agreements in favor of alliances.”

  • also, a handful of countries dislike each other now

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How did the Crimean war affect Russian domestic policy?

Abolition of serfdom

tried to establish local governments

not much really worked, but it eventually led to the death of the czar

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What strategies did Napoleon III employ to maintain social stability while also attempting to modernize French Society?

Essentially gaslight the French population by saying how good France was doing.

  • he basically fought any war he thought would be easy to win

  • while that stuff is going on, he makes a bunch of government reforms to keep the people distracted

    → bank, railroads, etc.

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How did Cavour succeed in unifying Italy under the rule of Victor Emanuel II?

made an incredibly complex plan. that didn’t really work out because Napoleon III was a scared goober and called it quits. Italy was united on accident

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How did Bismarck succeed in unifying Germany under the control of the Prussian king Wilhelm I?

through the danish war, austro-prussian war, and franco-prussian war, general of germany came up with a really complex plan THAT WORKED by pissing off Austria and France. by the end, all of germany was one

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What strategies did Bismarck employ to ensure that control of the German Empire would remain in the hands of the traditional, conservative Prussian elite?

Appease everybody -

  • give a constitution to the liberals

  • make a welfare state for the socialists

  • etc.

but make sure that in the end, the conservatives still held the power

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Compare/contrast the careers of Napoleon III, Cavour and Bismarck.

Napoleon III - fight anybody to gain popularity

Cavour - come up with incredibly complex plan and have fail successfully

Bismarck - come up with complex plan and have it work perfectly

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How did parliamentary politics in reshape British society during the Victorian Era?

conservatives vs liberals

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What strategies did the Habsburgs pursue in order to stabilize their heterogenous empire?

Use military force

Give the Hungarians power to avoid falling apart

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