NS201 Exam I

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ecology

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Biology

Intro to Bio

164 Terms

1

ecology

the study of the interactions of living organisms with their environment

goal: to understand the distribution and abundance of living things in the physical environment

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2

Ecology sublevels

organism

population

community

ecosystem

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3

organism

in a forest, each tree is an organism

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4

population

in a forest, all pine trees make up a population

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5

community

all the species or populations within an area and the interactions between species

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6

ecosystem

all the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) things in an area at a given time

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7

evolution

the change in heritable characteristics of a biological population over successive generations, ie. the process by which new species arise and biodiversity is generated

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8

unit of evolution

population (individuals do not evolve)

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9

natural selection

process that leads to evolutionary change

mechanism by which species with more favorable traits for a given environment are better able to survive and reproduce, thus changing the population

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10

epistemology

the study of knowledge

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11

empiricism

perception and sensory

evidence is gathered from our senses and experiences

science is based on this

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12

process of empiricism

  1. use sensory means

  2. make observation

  3. rationalize

  4. draw conclusion

  5. gain empirical knowledge

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13

inductive reasoning

starts with a specific observation, then makes generalizations based on those (used to form hypothesis)

observation → pattern → hypothesis → theory

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14

deductive reasoning

starts with a general premise, then predicts specific result based on that (used to test hypothesis)

theory → hypothesis → observation → support

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15

for science to work, it must what?

  • be testable

  • be falsifiable

  • be reproducible

  • be verifiable

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16

basic science

knowledge for the sake of knowledge, regardless of application

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17

applied science

uses scientific knowledge to solve real-world problems, often relies on basic science

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18

descriptive science

based on observations

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19

hypothesis-based science

asks “why”

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hypothesis

must be falsifiable

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21

dependent variable

what is being tested or measured to see if it depends on the independent variable

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22

independent variable

changed to test its effect on dependent variable

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23

control group

exposed to baseline independent variable conditions

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experimental group

exposed to variations in independent variable

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25

controlled variables

parameters held constant between groups

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26

correlation

statistical relationship of the relationship of two or more variables

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27

causation

one variable is the source of a given affect on another variable

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28

confirmation bias

tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms or supports one’s prior beliefs or values

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29

sampling bias

occurs when research samples over or under represent certain groups

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30

publishing bias

certain studies or results are more likely to be published

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31

observer bias

systematic variation between true value and the value actually observed by the observer

(seeing what you expect or want to see)

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32

biodiversity

the number of species and their relative abundance to each other in a given space

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33

genetic diversity

variability in genetic material that provides adaptive potential

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34

chemical diversity

diversity of metabolism, proteins/enzymes, byproducts produces by organisms

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35

ecosystem diversity

number of different environments on the planet or in a geographical region

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36

taxonomic biodiversity

number of species

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37

taxonomy

classification and naming of organisms/species

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38

biological species

group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring

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39

phylogenetic tree

classing them together based on what they look like

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40

sister groups

next to each other on phylogenetic tree and are more closely related to each other than other groups

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41

common ancestors

extinct organisms that groups evolved from in the evolutionary past and are represented on the nodes where branches split

<p>extinct organisms that groups evolved from in the evolutionary past and are represented on the nodes where branches split</p>
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42

prokaryotes

first organism

single-celled

anaerobic (no oxygen)

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43

cyanobacteria

single-celled

evolved ability to produce oxygen and transformed earth’s atmosphere

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44

eukaryote

true nucleus

organelles - organized by membranes

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45

multicellularity

can grow larger

can specialize cell types

  • plants

  • fungi

  • animals

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46

species richness

number of species in a location

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47

relative abundance

how many of each type of species is present in relationship to other species

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48

native species

occur in a certain ecosystem due to natural distribution and natural evolution

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49

endemic species

native to a single geographical location, i.e. evolved in one location and never spread out

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50

extinction

species entirely dies out

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51

6th mass extinction

  • habitat loss and fragmentation

  • overharvesting

  • species introductions

  • exotic/ invasive species

  • pollution

  • climate change

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52

invasive species

harm the native species / disrupt the ecosystem

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53

mass extinction

sudden, dramatic loss of biodiversity

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54

in-situ conservation

(in-place ) natural ecosystem is preserved and degradation is prevented

eg. wolves in natural habitat

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55

ex-situ conservation

(out of place) breeding and maintenance of endangered species in artificial ecosystems

eg. tigers in captivity

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56

restoration

repair or reverse degradation, damage, or destruction that has already been done to an ecosystem

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57

niche

subset of ecosystem where a particular species live

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58

distribution

where geographically a species lives

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59

abundance

how many individuals of a species are in a given area

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60

diffusion dispersal

gradual movement of a species over hospital terrain for a period of generations

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61

jump dispersal

movement of an individual across a large distance

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62

secular dispersal

migrant populations evolve into a new species as they disperse from original population

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63

Salt Marsh Video

hypothesis: top-down ecological forces plan an important role in salt marshes

ie. the snails are controlling the growth of the grasses

control group: land without snails

independent: fertilized, unfertilized

dependent: plant growth


Salt marsh ecosystems are maintained by a combination of top-down and bottom-up forces - the comination of snails (top-down) and nutrients (bottom-up) interact to control the amount of marsh grass that grows. 

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64

Which "way of knowing" is the primary way of knowing used in science?

Perception/Sensory (Empiricism)

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65

Once a theory has been tested over and over for many years, it becomes proven.

False

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66

Sometimes, when people are presented with evidence that contradicts their personal beliefs, they find ways to justify, ignore, forget, or discount this evidence. This is an example of:

confirmation bias

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67

Sal wants to test whether highway noise affects bird feeding behavior. They find two identical sites in the woods, both that are far from the highway and have no noise. The two sites are separated enough that noise will not travel between them. They install bird feeders with "camera traps" that take a photo when the bird visits the feeder - five feeders with cameras at each site. At one site, Sal installs speakers that play a recording of highway noise at the same decibel level as they measured 100 meters from the highway. At the other site, no extra noise is played. After one week, Sal compiles the data from the camera traps and averages the number of visits to the feeders and compares the total number of visits at the site with highway noise to the number of visits at the site with no noise.

What is the independent variable?

whether or not the highway noise is played

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68

Which of the following does not describe scientific process or knowledge?

proof of certainty

repeatable

falsifiable

evidence based

proof of certainty

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69

There are 4 types of biodiversity we discussed in lecture. Which type refers to the number of species?

taxonomic diversity

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70

Which of the following is not one of the 3 domains of life determined using molecular phylogentic analysis?

Prokarya

Eukarya

Archaea

Bacteria

Prokarya

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71

How many times has multicellularity evolved? And in which groups of organisms?

plants, fungi, animals

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72

population density

number of individuals per unit of area or volume

<p>number of individuals per unit of area or volume</p>
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73

dispersion

patter of spacing among individuals in a population

<p>patter of spacing among individuals in a population</p>
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74

census

count of a members of a population

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75

Complete Direct Counts

count all of the individuals in a population by observation

very accurate but potentially difficult

possible for small scales or large animals in open areas

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76

density sample

individuals per unit of area/volume

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77

quadrat sampling

the type of species and abundance of each species in a given area/volume are recorded

<p>the type of species and abundance of each species in a given area/volume are recorded</p>
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78

transect sampling

draw lines across survey area and then count individuals a given distance to either side

<p>draw lines across survey area and then count individuals a given distance to either side</p>
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79

volumetric sampling

collect a given volume of water then count

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80

mark-recapture sampling

capture and mark all of the animals during a given sampling event then release them later

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81

indirect counts

when it is not possible to estimate the density of organisms in an area, you can compare relative abundance/density between areas or over time

eg. traps, fecal counts, vocalizations, catches per effort, dens and nests

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82

demography

statistical study of how a population changes over time

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83

survivorship curve

type I = late loss

type II = constant loss

type III = early loss

<p>type I = late loss</p><p>type II = constant loss</p><p>type III = early loss</p>
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84

type I

humans - few offspring, high parental investment, low infant mortality, higher death rates late in life

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85

type II

small mammals and birds- moderate amount of offspring, some parental investment, individuals tend to die at steady rates throughout life

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86

type III

trees, invertebrates - produce many small offspring, little to no parental investment, low likelihood of surviving early life, but those that survive early life tend to live long

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87

growth rate

birth rate - death rate

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88

carrying capacity K

max number of organisms that a region can support without environmental degradation

can decline if a population grows too much

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89

Which of the following statements best reflects empiricism?

Once a phenomenon is rigorously tested and a wealth of evidence is collected, the knowledge gained is considered a permanent fact that cannot be disputed.

What we know to be true is always up for revision based on new evidence.

Truth is subjective and may mean different things to different people, based on their values or beliefs.

Logic and reason are key; if an argument follows correct logic, then it is true.

ANSWER: What we know to be true is always up for revision based on new evidence.

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90

A researcher wants to test if “chemical X” in a popular household pesticide harms frogs by increasing the amount of stress hormone (cortisol) they produce. They have 3 treatment groups: 1) frogs that live in clean water; 2) frogs that live in water exposed to the pesticide containing “chemical X”; and 3) frogs that are exposed to a placebo – the pesticide with all of the inactive ingredients but with “chemical X” removed. They measure the frogs stress hormone levels before exposure to the treatments and then measure it after a week of treatments to see if “chemical X” increases the frogs stress hormone production.

In this case, stress hormone (cortisol) is…

dependent variable

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91

Bob is on a research team trying to determine how common a vegetarian diet is among college students. To do this, Bob and their team go to a different places across a college campus and ask students to take surveys. Bob notices a lot of students lined up outside of a steakhouse across the street from the campus and decides to survey students waiting in line because it seems easier. Bob finds that only 2% of the students he surveyed were vegetarian, while the other researchers on their team found that 20-30% of the students they surveyed were vegetarian.

sampling bias

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92

Dogs (Canis familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) are sister species to each other on a phylogenetic tree; however, dogs are move evolved than gray wolves because they have been domesticated by humans.

FALSE

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93

Out of the types listed, which are the most abundant type of organism on all of Earth?

vertebrates

insects

plants

fungi

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94

What is the value of biodiversity?

Greater access to aesthetic values and opportunities for education and recreation

Production of materials and livelihood for support such as food, timber, and energy

Regulation of environmental processes including water and soil cycles, air quality, and climate regulation

Correct

Production of materials and livelihood for support such as food, timber, and energy

Correct

Greater access to aesthetic values and opportunities for education and recreation

Correct

Regulation of environmental processes including water and soil cycles, air quality, and climate regulation

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95

Which statement is the most correct? 

Ecological processes drive evolutionary responses AND Evolutionary process drive ecological responses

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96

Which of the following is an indirect measure of abundance?

Counting the number of frog calls per hour at a pond to compare the calling rates between ponds

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97

What do we predict might happen if a population of animals exceeds its carrying capacity?

  • After initially overshooting capacity, the population might fall back below capacity before leveling off right at the original carrying capacity.

  • After initially overshooting capacity, the animals damage the environment so much that it collapses and cannot heal, causing the population of animals to crash and eventually go extinct.

  • After initially overshooting capacity, the environment becomes damaged and the population falls back below the original capacity, but then settles at a new lower capacity based on the environmental damage.

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98

Based on the phylogeny of all life on Earth that was made using DNA evidence, the group Eukarya (which includes all known forms of multicellular life, including us) is most closely related to which other group of organisms?

archaea

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99

if population overshoots carrying capacity by a lot

environment is extremely damaged, and population dies

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100

if population overshoots carrying capacity by a good bit

environment is damaged and carrying capacity is reduced

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