US History - Final

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Amerigo Vespucci

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1

Amerigo Vespucci

discovered America to be a new continent

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2

charter

document that gives holder the right to organize settlements in an area

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3

joint stock company

individuals investing money to buy a stock, controlled early colonization

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4

John Smith

founded + governed Jamestown

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5

Jamestown

1st English settlement, many got sick, did not get along with Indians

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6

treatment of native Americans by English + Spanish

-overworked, abused, forced conversion to Christianity, disease -ex. Spanish conquered Aztecs, raided Indians

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7

treatment of native Americans by French

respected their territories, treated them as human beings, wanted to trade

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8

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Puritans founded it, wanted to build a "model Christian community", Rodger Williams forced to leave

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9

Puritans

wanted to "purify" the church of England

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10

Georgia colony

James Oglethorpe established it, refuge for London's indebted prisoners

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11

economy in New England

had very few slaves, small farms, slaves were treated well

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12

causes of French + Indian War

-England + France both had control of Ohio River Valley -religious differences

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13

effects of French + Indian War

-British citizens had to pay taxes to pay off war debt - -France left North America -England gained land east of the Mississippi

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14

Treaty of Paris 1763

ended French + Indian War

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15

reasons Parliament taxed the colonies

-debt from French + Indian War -defending new territory in America

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16

virtual representation

members of Parliament controlled the colonies

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17

sons of liberty

violent political organization that opposed British taxation

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18

nonimportation

prohibition of imported goods from other countries, closed port of Boston

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19

circular letter

forged ties between colonies after Townshed Acts

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20

Thomas Paine

wrote "Common Sense" (defense for American independence from England), supporter of revolutionary causes

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21

Common Sense

argued for independence from England

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22

Thomas Jefferson

democrat, secretary of state

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23

Declaration of Independence

America declared independence from Britain

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24

Battle of Saratoga

defensive victory for Americans, Benedict Arnold came in to help the British (traitor)

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25

Battle of Yorktown

French troops helped, trapped British soldiers, Britain surrendered

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26

advantages British had at the start of the war

best Navy, more soldiers, more funds

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27

Treaty of Paris 1783

ended Revolutionary War + declared America independent

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28

Articles of Confederation (strengths + weaknesses)

Strengths: -created a sense of unity -Congress could declare war, start a navy or army -organize a post office

Weaknesses: -each state had one vote -no power to draft soldiers -no power to enforce treaties -could not raise taxes -no president -no national currency

-needed 2/3 vote to pass laws

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29

Land Ordinance of 1785

-sale of lands known as the Northwest Territory -divided lands into townships - area of land six miles square -each township divided into 36 sections, each 640 acres

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30

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

-gov. for new territories -bill of rights for the territories -outlined a process for admitting a new state to the Union

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31

Shay's Rebellion

mob of farmers in Massachusetts marched on county courts to stop the sales of farms for nonpayment of taxes and debt

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32

Virginia Plan

-proposed by James Madison -national gov. with three branches -bicameral legislature - 2 houses for House of Reps. -representation based on population

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33

New Jersey Plan

-proposed by William Patterson -no state should have more power than another -changes to AOC -representation based on population + statehood

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34

Great Compromise

-bicameral legislature -Senate with equal number of reps. from each state -House of Reps. based on a state's population

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35

Three-Fifths Compromise

Slaves were counted as 3/5 of a person for BOTH representation and tax purposes

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36

Supremacy Clause

Constitution was the most important law of the land

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37

Federalists

supported Constitution

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38

anti-federalists

thought Constitution was missing a list of rights

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39

Ratification of the Constitution

-waited on New York + Virginia's votes

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40

The Bill of Rights

-first 10 amendments -only applied to federal gov.

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41

Federalist Papers

-Hamilton, Madison, Jay -arguments to NY in favor of ratification

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42

Washington's cabinet

-Hamilton: secretary of the treasury -Jefferson: new secretary of state -Knox: secretary of war -Adams: vice president

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43

First 4 presidents

Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison

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44

Embargo Act

outlawed trade between America and any foreign nation

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45

Washington's farewell address

warned Americans against danger of political parties, to remain neutral in foreign conflicts, and celebrate their achievements

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46

Kentucky + Virginia Solutions

-laid basis for the doctrine of state rights -argued that each state should have the right to declare acts null or void if they contradict the Constitution

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47

Thomas Jefferson

democratic-republican, Burr was the runner-up

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48

Election of 1800

Jefferson vs. Burr, Hamilton makes the final vote for Jefferson

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49

War of 1812 (cause + effect)

cause: -British attempts to restrict U.S. trade -British took U.S. citizens + put them into the navy -U.S. wanted to expand

effects: -U.S gained international respect -end of Federalist party

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50

Gag Rule

no anti-slavery petitions in Congress

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51

Tariff of Abominations

-protected Northern Industry -hurt Southern farmers

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52

Henry Clay

speaker of the House, "great compromiser", bets House of Reps. to vote for Adams

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53

Missouri Compromise

-Missouri=slave state -Maine=free state -drew territorial line to determine which states had slavery

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54

Protective Tariffs

imported goods costed more than domestic, supported Northern industry

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55

Andrew Jackson

-heavily opposed the U.S. Bank -claimed bank was corrupt -vetoed bill to renew the bank's charter -resulted in the Specie Circular (people had to pay in gold or silver coins)

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56

Seneca Falls Convention

-first women's rights convention

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57

Lucretia Mott

early feminist + female abolitionist

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58

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

chief philosopher of women's rights, women’s suffrage

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59

election of 1824

-Jackson vs. Adams vs. Crawford vs. Clay (who persuaded House of Reps. to vote for Adams) -Adams won all the the House of Reps. votes -Adams named Clay secretary of state

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60

election of 1828

-Jackson vs. Adams -vicious election with supporters rallying against opponents

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61

Era of Good Feelings

-election of 1824 ended this era -no more unity -Adams vs. Jackson

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62

Nullification crisis in SC

resulted in the doctrine of nullification (states had power to nullify acts they deem unconstitutional)

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63

corrupt bargain

-Adams named Clay secretary of state -Jackson thought they made a corrupt bargain

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64

Robert Fulton

engineered the first steamboat

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65

Indian Removal Act

-U.S. policy was to remove Indians from their land west of the MS river -slower process in the South vs. North

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66

Stephen Austin

-brought U.S. families to Texas -families agreed to become Catholic, citizens of Mexico and free child slaves at the age of 14

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67

settlement of Texas

most citizens hoped to have Texas annexed into the U.S.

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68

Occupation of Oregon

emigrants + missionaries traveled to Oregon -split up Oregon between U.S. and British by the 49th parallel

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69

Joseph Smith

founder of Mormonism

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70

James K. Polk

-elected president in 1844 -expansionist -Oregon: "54-40 or fight"

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71

manifest destiny

the U.S. is "destined by God" to expand

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72

expansionists

focused attention on the annexation of Texas + Oregon

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73

Mexican American War

causes: -undisputed boundary between U.S. + Texas

results: -one-sided affair -Mexican gov. paid 15 million -U.S. received disputed Texas territory, New Mexico and California

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74

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

-ended war -Mexico gave up all claims to Texas

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75

factory system

brought machines + workers under one roof

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76

Samuel Slater

British mechanist, helped build cotton yarn spinning mill

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77

assembly line

first industry was the meatpacking industry

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78

Eli Whitney

invented cotton gin

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79

King Cotton

indicated the political + economic importance of cotton production

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80

Harriet Tubman

underground railroad leader

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81

underground railroad

helped slaves escape plantations

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82

% of slave owners in the South

12% of plantations had slaves

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83

impact of industrial revolution

-terrible conditions -stressful lifestyle -no safety precautions -child labor -women had a higher societal status

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84

Nativists

policy favoring inhabitants rather than immigrants (anti-immigrant)

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85

Wilmot Proviso

no slavery in any territory from Mexico

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86

expansion of slavery into Mexican Cession

made new territory gained open to slavery

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87

election of 1860

-Douglas, Breckenridge, Bell, Lincoln

-Lincoln wins

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88

Compromise of 1850

-proposed to determine which states would have slavery

-California became a free state

-buying + selling slaves banned

-boundary dispute between TX + NM=solved

-no slavery restrictions on remaining territory from Mexico

-federal gov. assumes Texas’ 10 million dollar state debt

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89

Fugitive Slave Act

slave owners sent agents north to retrieve runaway slaves, many slaves ran off to Canada

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90

Harriet Beecher Stowe

wrote Uncle Tom’s cabin - antislavery novel

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91

Stephan Douglas

ran for election, democrat, promoted Kansas-Nebraska act

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92

popular sovereignty

authority of the state and gov. are based upon the consent of the people

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93

Kansas-Nebraska Act

-repealed Missouri Compromise

-split into two territories, each territory could decide whether or not to have slavery

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94

rise of Republican Party

-decline of Whig Party

-carried all but 5 northern states in the election of 1856

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95

Bleeding Kansas

John Brown led an attack against proslavery immigrants who lived along Potawatomi Creek

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96

John Brown

crazy anti-slavery advocate

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97

Dred Scott case

Scott was still considered a slave, Blacks had no citizenship (free or not)

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98

John Brown’s Raid

led attack against a federal arsenal in Virginia

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99

first state to secede from the Union

South Carolina

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100

reasons for succession

-slavery

-tariffs

-state rights

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