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Cultural

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Tags and Description

218 Terms

1

Cultural

Management which includes strategic schemes and planning of farm activities "trap crop" "burning of rice hay"

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2

Hemimetabola

incomplete metamorphosis, are observed on insect which its immature stage are aquatic. "Naiad"

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3

emergent

aquatic weeds as their roots are planted at the soil beneath the water and its other plant parts are floating as connected by a strong stem in between "lotus"

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4

Damping-off

usually caused by soilborne plant pathogens that causes extensive tissue necrosis to the tender tissue of the roots and stem of the plant near the soil line "rotting of seedlings prior to emergence of rotting of seedling stems at an area just above soil"

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5

granules

are a formulation where the pesticide is impregnated in an organic material such as sand, clay or some other dried substance that can be spread. 'applied undiluted'

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6

Chelicera

normally found in arachnids. This is the first pair of fang-like appendages near the mouth of an arachnid; often modified for grasping and piercing.

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7

Rotting/Rot

disintegration and decomposition of host tissue

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8

Yellowing

chlorosis or decrease of leafs chlorophyll

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9

Wilt

characterize by drooping and shrivelling of plant organ

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10

Blight

withering without rotting

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11

Necrosis

death of plant cell/tissue

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12

Stunting

decrease in the size of the entire/ some organs of a plant

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13

ooze

are masses of bacteria cells. exudates of bacterial cells on the surface of plant parts infected with bacteria

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14

abdomen

Sting of wasp can be found at its ______ and it is an organ which injected neurotoxins.

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15

Plesionecrotic

symptoms exhibited (silvering, yellowing, wilting) those of affected tissues that are not yet dead but in the press of dying.

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16

labium

the insect's lower lip. This is positioned towards the back of the head and helps hold food in place when the insect feeds. It functions in grasping, manipulating, and retaining food.

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17

Labrum

the upper lip that helps hold food in a position when the insect feeds

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18

Hypopharyx

is tongue-like structure used my mosquitoes to pierce host tissue

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19

Epipharyx

is an organ of taste

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20

Bacteria

soft rots

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21

Fungi

lesion, spots

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22

Viruses

mosaicking, mottling

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23

Nematodes

wilting and galls

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24

Conidia

are spores produced asexually from fungi as with those in the class of Deuteromycota. The latter is known as an imperfect fungi (no sexual state).

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25

Hymnoptera

order of insects developed their wings internally. are spores produced asexually from fungi as with those in the class of Deuteromycota. The latter is known as an imperfect fungi (no sexual state).

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26

Isoptera

termite insects have moniliform type of antenna which resembles a string of beads.

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27

phytophagous

eats on any part of plants

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28

zoophagous

eats animal

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29

entomophagous

eats insect

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30

pollinator

animal that moves pollen from male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower

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31

Puccinia polysora

fungus causing corn rust and an important disease of corn in tropical areas. It produces dense uredial pustules on the surfaces of the corn leaves, leaf sheaths, and stalks

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32

Bipolaris maydis

causes southern corn leaf blight

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33

Ustilago maydis

causes corn smut.

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34

Uromyces phaseoly

causes bean rust

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35

Mollicutes

are parasites of various animals and plants, living on or in the host's cells. They are bacteria without cell walls and are located in the sieve of the phloem. Resistant to penicillin but not to tetracycline, binary fission and budding, smallest and simplest prokaryote

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36

Stemborer

has destructive mouth parts. Other choices have piercing-sucking mouthparts, thus, capable only of sucking plant saps.

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37

Sedges

are member of Cyperaceae Family wherein genus Cyperus is under. Other sedges have genus such as Scirpus and Fimbristyllis.

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38

Intact host surface

bacteria cannot enter the plant because no penetration organ in them unlike fungi, thus, they rely only on the natural openings and wound of its host.

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39

Golden apple snail

is a mollusk

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40

Use of resistant variety

the cheapest way of controlling pest because the plant itself is capable of repelling or avoiding pest damage.

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41

Ahphids

"most important group of vector" of plant virus as they transmit several plant viruses to highly economic crops such as banana, apple, etc.

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42

appressorium

A specialized cell used by several fungal plant diseases to infect host plants

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43

Pharate condition

state of an insect that has formed a new exoskeleton but that is still covered by the old

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44

Teneral condition

phase when insect is recently moulted and has soft integument

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45

Ecdysis

Periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods

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46

Apolysis

the separation of the epidermal cells from the cuticle, marks the beginning of the molt and the next instar.

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47

uredospores

fungal inocula initiated the rust disease outbreak in the tropics

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48

diptera

a large order of insects having a single pair of wings and sucking or piercing mouths. Rice whorl maggot is under diptera. Note that immature flies are called maggots.

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49

Pythium palmivora

causes collapse of the spear and younger leaves of coconut "coconut bud rot"

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50

Canker

exhibited its unique symptom of callus (sunken necrotic area with cracked border) formation around the sunken necrotic lesion.

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51

Cerci

perform a sensory function on the abdomen.

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52

Disease

the abnormal condition or changes in the normal function and characteristic of an organ.

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53

Systemic insecticide

costs much more as compared to contact insecticide as the active ingredient of this type of insecticide are distributed throughout the plant system.

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54

Grass

Saccharum spontaneum (Kans/Asian), Eleusine indica (goose grass), Imperata cylindrica (cogon)

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55

Agrostology

is the technical term for the study of grasses.

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56

Prevent

approach to weed management that implies non-exchange of weeds from one are to another

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57

Antennae

paired sensory organs on the heads of insects. Antennae are sensitive to touch, smell and, in some species, sound. Antennae are made up of several segments and different groups of insects have different forms of antennae

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58

geniculate

bees antennae

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59

plumose

male mosquito antennae

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60

pilose

female mosquito antennae

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61

clavate

butterfly antennae

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62

Water

starts the process of weed germination as it is absorbed by the embryo which results to the rehydration of and expansion of the cells

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63

parasitoid

is an insect whose larvae live as parasites that eventually kill their hosts (typically other insects).

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64

Comperiella calauanica

parasitoid of coconut scale insect

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65

Cotesia sp.

parasitizes caterpillar

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66

Encarsia formosa

parasitoid of greenouse whitefly

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67

Plant Disease Diagnosis

the study of factors and its mechanisms of inducing disease in plants as well as methods of prevention and control of disease and damage

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68

Plant Pathology

the study of the organisms and of the environmental factors that casue disease in plants.

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69

Symptomatlogy

first phase in plant pathology which deals with the symptoms and signs of plant disease for the purpose of diagnosis.

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70

Epidemiology

deals with the transmission and control of disease

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71

Flagellum

a lash-like appendage used for locomotion by a bacteria enables them move through films of water

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72

Hypoplastic

symptoms (stunting, chlorosis, mottle, curling, rosetting) exhibited failure of plants to develop fully due to decreased in production of the number of cells.

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73

Synapse

the junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle

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74

Axon

the long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron

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75

Dendrites

short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron.

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76

Plecoptera

stoneflies; The nymphs or immatures live on or about stones in streams and rivers, hence their common name.

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77

Isoptera

termites; order of social insects that live in colonies, often placed in subclass Exopterygota

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78

Diptera

Flies; a large order of insects having a single pair of wings and sucking or piercing mouths

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79

Collembola

springtails; minute wingless arthropods

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80

Trichodorus

stubby root nematode

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81

Meloidogyne

Root-knot nematode

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82

Helicotylenchulus

spiral nematodes

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83

Aphelenchoides

foliar nematodes causing leaf malformations

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84

Metalaxyl

a systemic fungicide which is use to control diseases caused by Oomycete fungi. Usually its formulation are in granules and powder.

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85

Chlorosis

pertains to the yellowing of normally green tissue

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86

Colonization

is the act of development or reproduction of a plant pathogen for the purpose of spreading within its host

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87

Wilt

characterize by drooping and shrivelling of plant organ

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88

Necrosis

death of plant cell/tissue

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89

Bipolaris maydis

is a fungal which causes southern corn leaf blight.

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90

Orthoptera

(grasshoppers, crickets and similar families)

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91

Mantodea

(praying mantis)

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92

Phasmatodea

(stick and leaf insects)

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93

Blattodea

(cockroaches)

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94

tegmen

modified leathery front wing on an insect that belongs to Orthopterans

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95

Lesion

localized area of discolored and diseased tissue

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96

Deuteromycetes

fungi reproduce asexually; called conidia

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97

Calcium carbonate

reduced the accumulation of phytotoxic compounds during the decomposition of crop residue.

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98

Phasmatodea

Stick insects

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99

Mantodea

Praying mantis

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100

Orthoptera

grasshoppers and locusts; crickets

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