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Comminuted fracture

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101 Terms

1

Comminuted fracture

Shattering of bone

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2

vertebrosternal

true ribs

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3

Scapula

shoulder blade

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4

Humerus

Upper arm bone

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5

Phalanges

Fingers and toes

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6

Femur

Thigh bone

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7

Fibula

Lower leg bone

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8

Radius

Forearm bone

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9

Carpals

Wrist bones

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10

Tarsals

Ankle bones

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11

Metatarsals

Foot bones

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12

Sprain

Twisting action that tears ligament at a joint

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13

myalgia

Muscle pain

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14

Paralysis

Inability to control voluntary movement

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15

Hypertrophy (muscular system)

Increase of muscle in diameter and strength

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16

Atrophy

Decrease in muscle size and strength

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17

Tonus

Partial muscle contraction

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18

cryptorchidism

Testes fail to descend into the scrotal sac

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19

Erectile dysfunction

Inability to initiate or maintain erection

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20

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

BPH; enlargement of Prostate that is not cancerous

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21

Hydrocele

Abnormal collection of fluid in testes

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22

Androgen insensitivity

Genetic disorder where tissue do not respond to testosterone

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23

Prostate cancer

Uncontrolled spread of prostate cell

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24

Premenstrual syndrome

Physical and physiological symptoms related to menstrual cycle

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25

Excitability

ability to respond to a stimulus

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26

Anaphylaxis

Wide spread inflammation due to allergic reaction; causes widespread vasodilation

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27

Cytokine

Proteins produced by damaged tissues and white blood cells

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28

Antibody

Secreted by the plasma cells; protein that binds to antigen to deactivate it

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29

Antigen

Located on cell surface; surface cell protein used by body for identification

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30

Autoimmune disorder

Disease in which immune system attacks and destroys healthy body tissue

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31

Innate immunity

Physical barrier; Non-specific method to fight against infection

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32

Adaptive immunity

Specific response to pathogen that recognize specific pathogens

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33

Lymph node

Bean shaped lymphatic filter

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34

Leukemia

Cancer of white blood cells

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35

Plasma cell

Primary immune response; produces antibodies

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36

Memory B cells

Secondary immune response

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37

Perforin

Cell-mediated immunity

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38

Regulatory T cells

Turns off immune response

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39

Natural active immunity

Accidentally exposed to pathogen such as chicken pox

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40

Artificial passive immunity

Being injected with antibodies

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41

Artificial active immunity

Vaccination such as flu shot

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42

Natural passive immunity

Breast milk

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43

Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor

treats rheumatoid arthritis

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44

Memory cells

Remembers pathogens

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45

Histamines

Secreted by mast cells

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46

Interluekin-1

Secreted by macrophages

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47

Lymph

Thin watery fluid composed of intercellular fluid; carries antigens to nodes around the body

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48

Fungi

Pathogenic organism

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49

Radiation

Inflammation-causing physical agent

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50

Venoms

Inflammation-causing chemical agent

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51

Interluekin-2

Secreted by helper T cells

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52

Cancer

Abnormal cells spread into lymphatic system

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53

Rheumatoid arthritis

Autoimmune attack on synovial membrane

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54

HIV/AIDS

Destruction of helper T cells by virus

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55

Allergies

Immune response to harmless antigen

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56

Lupus erythematosis

Autoimmune destruction of many different tissues

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57

Type 1 diabetes

Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic cells

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58

Asthma

Respiratory distress trigged by allergies

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59

Leukocytes

All-encompassing term for White Blood Cells

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60

Neutrophil

Phagocytize granulocytes; most common white blood cell

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61

Interferon

Cytokine that protects neighboring cells from viral attack

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62

Macrophage

Phagocytize modified monocytes; innate immunity

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63

Basophils

Releases chemicals to promote inflammation

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64

Eosinophil

Counteracts activity of basophils; active during parasitic infections

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65

Natural killer cells

Innate lymphocytes that secrete chemicals to kill cells displaying antigens

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66

Dendritic cell

Modified monocytes acting as antigen-presenting cells

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67

Cytotoxic

Adaptive immunity T-lymphocyte

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68

Plasma cells

Produce antibodies

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69

Lymphatic capillary

small, open-ended lymph vessels

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70

Right lymphatic duct

short tube that receives purified lymph from the right side of the head, neck, chest, and arm

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71

Lingual tonsils

Masses of lymph tissue on the back of the tongue

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72

Pharyngeal tonsils

commonly called adenoids

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73

Cisterna chyli

Pouch-like structure at the start of the thoracic duct

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74

Lacteal

special lymphatic capillary that picks up digested fats

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75

Thymus

Atrophies after puberty

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76

Spleen

Organ on left side dorsal to the stomach

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77

polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

Genetic disease in which large cysts develop on a kidney; Nephrons are replaced by cysts

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78

diabetic nephropathy

kidney damage caused by diabetes mellitus

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79

Glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney

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80

Glomerulosclerosis

Scarring of the glomerulus; scarring of portions of the renal corpuscles

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81

Analgesic nephropathy

Kidney damage caused by overuse or abuse of drugs

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82

Lithotripsy

Shockwaves to break up a kidney stone

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83

Renal failure

Decrease in kidney function

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84

Ischemia

Tissue injury due to inadequate blood flow to kidney

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85

Creatinine

waste product of muscle metabolism

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86

Analgesic nephropathy

May be caused by overuse of ibuprofen

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87

Diabetes Indipidus

Too little Antidiuretic hormone being produced and secreted

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88

Diabetes mellitus

insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia

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89

Water toxicity

dangerously low blood sodium

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90

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

RBC debris may block vessels to kidney

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91

Kidney stones

Can block kidney tubules

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92

Anuria

absence of urine production

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93

Pyuria

pus in the urine

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94

Nocturia

urination at night

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95

Retention

inability to empty the bladder

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96

Incontinence

inability to control urination

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97

Proteinuria

protein in the urine

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98

Albuminuria

albumin in the urine

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99

urinary tract infection (UTI)

Movement of fecal matter into urethra and bladder

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100

Rugae

Permit expansion of urinary bladder

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