1st Year - Ethics, Midterms

studied byStudied by 2 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Differentiation vs. Integration

1 / 150

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

151 Terms

1

Differentiation vs. Integration

The conflict between the distribution of jobs and the organization of numerous activities generates a classic dilemma

New cards
2

Lack of Clarity vs. Lack of Creativity

employees are not clear about what they are expected to do, they often adapt their tasks to personal interests instead of system-wide goals that often lead to problems.

New cards
3

1. Right to choose based on reason, not desire.

2. Abide by the rules they follow.

3. Individuals are independent of others' choices

4. Equality is the first and foremost; freedom is the only inherent power.

5. Autonomous right of the people to be happy

Kant's philosophy on freedom

New cards
4

hypothetical imperative

one that we must fulfill if we are to satisfy our desires or command conditionally on your having a relevant desire

New cards
5

Teleological Theories

goals & ends/consequences

New cards
6

Ethical Egoism

self-interest

New cards
7

Utilitarianism

society's interest (public good)

New cards
8

Deontological Ethics

system of decision-making that focuses on the moral principles of duty and rules, not goals!!

New cards
9

Feminist (Care) Ethics

focus on relations and how they shape moral reasoning

emphasize practical/experimental dimension of our lives

New cards
10

Instinctive Behavior

hard-wired, inborn

New cards
11

morality

is in accordance with the categorical imperative

New cards
12

"Actions for the sake of duty:"

has moral worth

New cards
13

Principle of universality

first formulation

"act on that maxim whereby you can, at the same time will that should become a universal law"

New cards
14

Lifeblood of the government

taxation

New cards
15

culture

the characteristics and awareness of a specific community of people,v

New cards
16

1. culture is social and communal

2. defines normative principles and behavior of society

3. has restrictions, boundaries and limitations

4. helps generate character

5. identifies the authorities

THE INFLUENCES OF CULTURE IN MORAL DEVELOPMENT

New cards
17

folkways

everyday habits, customs, traditions

New cards
18

ideas

non materialist aspects of culture

New cards
19

material

culture tangible objects

New cards
20

intelligence

capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity

New cards
21

1987 Philippine Constitution Article 2 Section 11

provides, "The state recognizes the dignity of every human person and guaranteed full respect for human right."

New cards
22

Filipino cultural morality

centers on ideally having a "smooth interpersonal relationship (SIR) with others

New cards
23

Moral character

refers to the existence or lack of virtues such as integrity, courage, fortitude, honesty, and loyalty.

New cards
24

ēthē

etymologically linked to "ethics" and "morality"

New cards
25

Moral character traits

those dispositions of character for which it is appropriate to hold agents morally responsible.

New cards
26

Intention and Responsibility

Two important aspects of the revelatory nature of action

these are rooted in the will

New cards
27

Level 1: Preconventional level

At this level, morality is externally controlled.

New cards
28

Stage 1: Punishment/obedience orientation

Behaviour is determined by consequences.

obey in order to avoid punishment.

New cards
29

Stage 2: Instrumental purpose orientation

Behaviour is determined again by consequences.

focuses on receiving rewards or satisfying personal needs

New cards
30

Level 2: Conventional level

conformity to social rules remains important to the individual

New cards
31

Stage 4: Law and order orientation

Social rules and laws determine behaviour. The individual now takes into consideration a larger perspective, that of societal laws.

New cards
32

Level 3: Postconventional or principled level

individual moves beyond the perspective of his or her own society.

New cards
33

Stage 5: Social contract orientation

Individual rights determine behaviour. The individual views laws and rules as flexible tools for improving human purposes

New cards
34

Stage 6: Universal ethical principle orientation

highest stage of functioning.

appropriate action is determined by one's self-chosen ethical principles of conscience.

New cards
35

Ethical Subjectivism

theory basically utter runs contrary to the principle that there is objectivity in morality

New cards
36

Simple Subjectivism

the view that ethical statements reflect sentiments, personal preferences and feelings rather than objective facts.

New cards
37

Individualist Subjectivism

the view that there are as many distinctscales of good and evil asthere are individualsin the world

New cards
38

emotivism

refers to a theory about moral judgments, sentences, words, and speech acts

New cards
39

subjectivism

implies the moral statements are less significant than most people think they are

New cards
40

reason

in philosophy, is the faculty or process of drawing logical syllogism

New cards
41

reasoning

process of drawing out conclusion from the previous knowledge

New cards
42

Knowledge

something that one acquires as he studies, gets matured and professional.

New cards
43

moral theory

explains why a certain action is wrong -- or why we ought to act in certain ways.

New cards
44

Moral Subjectivism

where right or wrong are determined by what you -- the subject -- just happens to think (or 'feel') is right or wrong

New cards
45

Ethical Egoism

Right and wrong is determined by what isin yourself-interest. Or, it is immoral to act contrary to your self-interest

New cards
46

Kantian Theory

Right and wrong are determined by rationality, giving universal duties.

New cards
47

Contractarianism

The principles of right and wrong (or Justice) are those which everyone in society would agree upon in forming a social contract.

New cards
48

ethos

Greek word that may mean tradition, habit, character, or attitude.

New cards
49

meta-ethics

a discipline that relies on meaning.

a science that is seeking to address non-moral questions about morality.

New cards
50

Values

the basis of the capacity of an individual to distinguish between right and wrong

New cards
51

Gap vs Overlap

When the main tasks are not explicitly defined, the critical job will slip through gaps.

functions and activities can overlap, causing conflict, wasting time, and unintended duplication of responsibilities.

New cards
52

Excessive Autonomy vs. Excessive Interdependence

When individuals or groups are too independent, they are always isolated.

if the units and responsibilities are too closely connected, people are absentminded from work and waste time or excessive coordination.

New cards
53

freedom

according to kant, is the right to control one's actions based on reason, not desire

New cards
54

Perfect Duty

always true

o tell the truth, so we must never lie

more important that imperfect duty

New cards
55

Imperfect duty

requires flexibility

New cards
56

Beneficence

is an imperfect duty because we are not obligated to be absolutely helpful at all times, but should choose the times and places in which we are.

New cards
57

Act

has moral worth, it is done for the sake of duty

New cards
58

"Actions that accord with duty"

have no moral worth, not necessarily immoral

New cards
59

Universalizable

means it is morally right

New cards
60

cuture

at the root of human alienation from the environment.

New cards
61

culture

a concept that refers to a broad and diverse collection of often intangible areas of social life.

New cards
62

Cultural relativism

means that we do not judge a society by our own criteria of what is right or wrong, odd or natural.

New cards
63

positive mores or duty

"thou shall behavior"

New cards
64

negative mores

"thou shall not behavior" (immoral, taboo, societal prohibitions)

New cards
65

respect

a formal expression or gesture of greeting, esteem, or friendship:

New cards
66

Nature

the material world, especially as surrounding humankind and existing independently of human activities

New cards
67

dignity

the state or quality of being worthy of honor or respect.

New cards
68

Values

those aspects in life that include customs, traditions, etc., which the people regard as necessary and important in their dealings with one another

New cards
69

Utang na loob

very important to Filipinos

recognizing and returning the favor to that person in the same measure who help them in times of need

New cards
70

goodness of character

a product of the practice of virtuous behavior

New cards
71

Dispositions

particular kinds of properties or characteristics that objects can possess.

New cards
72

Lawrence Kohlberg

known for his theory of stages of moral development

New cards
73

Reason

the ability of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments y a process of logic.

New cards
74

Impartiality

in morality requires that we give equal and/or adequate consideration to the interests of all concerned parties.

New cards
75

• Moral Relativism (or Ethical Relativism)

the view that for a thing to be morally right is for it to be approved of by society, leading to the conclusion that different things are right for people in different societies and different periods in history

New cards
76

Virtue Ethics

Right and wrong are characterized in terms of acting in accordance with the traditional virtues -- making a good person

New cards
77

Feminists Ethics

Right and wrong are to be found in women's responses to the relationship of caring.

New cards
78

Utilitarianism

Right and wrong is determined by the overall goodness (utility) of the consequences of the action.

New cards
79

Ethics

can be provisionally described as the empirical study of moral decisions.

New cards
80

normative ethics

concerns human behavior in general, is to address our questions about the essence of human behavior

examine whether or not a particular act should or should not be carried out.

how humans respond to a moral question

New cards
81

moral philosophy

deals with moral ideas such as what human beings "must do or how human beings should be."

deals with our moral obligation, the meaning of the act, or the purpose of the act.

New cards
82

applied ethics

a philosophy that discusses strong and basic moral issues linked to abortion.

New cards
83

moral standards

refer to the guidelines we have on the types of acts that we find to be morally permissible and morally unacceptable.

primarily deals with issues that can either potentially threaten or greatly benefit human beings.

norms and values; universal

New cards
84

non-moral standards

apply to laws which are not related to social or legal considerations.

New cards
85

etiquette

a decorum, propriety means reverence for the formal criteria governing conduct in a civilized society.

New cards
86

The Professional Code of Ethics

a set of guidelines intended to help practitioners differentiate between right and wrong to guide their decision-making.

New cards
87

statute

a written law passed by a legislative body

New cards
88

Morals

shaped by the beliefs of an individual

New cards
89

moral dilemma

a situation in which a decision-maker must give preference to one moral principle over another (Kvalnes,2019)

New cards
90

self-inflicted dilemma

may arise as a result of a prior personal mistake.

New cards
91

Dilemmas

occur when, confronted with a challenging situation, two or more of that kind of values disagree with the understanding of the decision-maker, or when one assesses the moral option of another.

New cards
92

moral dilemma

is a situation in which people assume that they should morally do one thing and that they should morally do another thing (Kurie & Albin,2007)

New cards
93

Moral dilemma / ethical dilemma

is a situation whereby a person has to make a decision. Among competing alternatives, which is the right (ethical) alternative and which is the best? (Figar & Dordevic, 2016)

New cards
94

ORGANIZATIONAL ETHICAL OR MORAL DILEMMA

refers to a situation that causes an organization to respond negatively or positively to an ethical issue that affects staff, shareholders, and society, as well as corporate ethics and customers.

New cards
95

INDIVIDUAL MORAL DILEMMA

a pertains to a situation where individuals confront with a number of factors such as peer pressure, personal financial position, an economic and social status which may influence all individual ethical standards.

New cards
96

STRUCTURAL MORAL DILEMMA

selecting a proper system of responsibilities and relationships, which is a continuing universal challenge.

New cards
97

Good will

is unique as it is always good and retains its moral values even though it fails to achieve its moral intentions.

Means good without any qualifications

it also facilitates human acts

New cards
98

will of obligation

acts out of obligation can be described as a will which overcomes barriers to the preservation of moral law

New cards
99

dutiful will

a special case of good will which is evident under unfavorable conditions.

New cards
100

Duty

should be the motive of any moral act

emerge because failure to perform them will either result in a contradiction of conception or a contradiction of will.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 160 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 265 people
Updated ... ago
4.1 Stars(7)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1806 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(11)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard126 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard97 terms
studied byStudied by 42 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard335 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard240 terms
studied byStudied by 161 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)