BIOLOGY MIDTERM ONE

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199 Terms

1

matter

anything that takes up space and has mass, made up of elements

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element

cannot be broken into a simpler substance

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compound

substance consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio eg: NaCl sodium chloride

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oxygen, carbon, hydrogren, nitrogen

essential elements that make up 96% of human body

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trace elements

required by living organisms in small quantities

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atom

smallest unit of matter that still retains its properties

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7

atomic nucleus

protons and neutrons at the center of the atom.

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8

atomic number

number of protons in an atom which is unique to the element.

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9

mass number, atomic mass

sum of number of protons and neutrons, mass number approximates the atomic mass.

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10

isotopes

atoms with differing numbers of neutrons. an element usually a combination of different isotopes

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11

radioactive isotope

unstable isotope where the nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy

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12

potential energy

energy possessed because of structure or location, electrons have it given their arrangement around the nucleus

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13

chemical behavior of an atom

depends largely on the number of electrons in the outermost shell>>>> valence shell

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14

valence electrons

electrons in the outer shell aka valence shell

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15

molecule

2 or more atoms joined by a covalent bond

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16

double bond

sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms

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17

electronegativity

attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of of a covalent bond.

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  • the greater the electronegativity the more strongly it pulls the shared pair of electrons towards itself.

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19

nonpolar covalent bond

the electron pair is shared equally in a covalent bond because the elements have equal E-negativity

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polar covalent bond

unequal sharing of the electron pair if one of the atoms is more E-neg than the other.

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21

ion

charged ion or particle. it has either gained or lost an electron.

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22

cation

positively charged ion

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23

anion

negatively charged ion

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ionic bond

attraction between a cation and an anion.

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hydrogen bond

when water molecules are close together, their positive and negative regions are attracted to the oppositely-charged regions of nearby molecules. this is a weak interaction

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Adhesion

clinging of one substance to another

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27

surface tension

how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.

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28

kinetic energy

energy of motion

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29

temperature

measure of heat intensity and also represents the average kinetic energy of molecules.

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heat transfer

heat passes from warmer to cooler substances until the two are the same temperature.

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31

specific heat

the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of substance to change temp 1 deg C

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evaporation

transformation from a liquid to gas

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solution

homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

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34

solvent

dissolving agent within a solution

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35

solute

substance that is dissolved in the solvent.

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36

hydrophilic

any substance that has an affinity for water,

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colloid

large molecules that do not dissolve in water but rather remain suspended in the aqueous solution.

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hydrophobic

substances without an affinity for water, generally nonionic and nonpolar eg oil

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mole (mol)

represents the exact number of objects 6.23 * 10^23.

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molarity

the number of moles of solute per liter of solution

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41

acid

substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

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base

substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

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43

isomer

compounds with the same numbers of the same elements but have a different shape and therefore different properties.

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44

light microscope

visible light passed through the specimen and then through glass lenses, which magnify the image as it is projected into the eye or into a camera.

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magnification

ratio of an objects image size to its real size

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resolution

measure of clarity of the image. it is the minimum distance two points can be separated but still distinguished.

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contrast

accentuates differences in the parts of a sample

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48

organelles

membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells

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49

electron microscope

focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface.

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scanning electron microscope

good for the detailed study of topography . electron beam scans the surface and excites the electrons

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51

transmission EM

used to study internal structure of cells. aims an E beam through a very thin section of specimen which has been stained with heavy metals.. this has revealed many organelles.

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nucleoid

DNA concentrated in a region but is not bound, occurs in prokaryotic cells.

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"eukaryote"

means true nucleus in greek aka they have a real nucleus.

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cytoplasm

region generally between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. organelles are suspended in euks.

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cell size

eukaryotic cells tend to be larger than prokaryotic cells.

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plasma membrane

selective barrier found in all cells that allows for the passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service cell.

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microvilli

long thin projections from the surface which increase cellular surface area.

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in animal cells but not in plant cells

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nucleus

contains most of the genes of a eukaryotic cell.

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nuclear envelope

encloses the nucleus and separates the contents from the cytoplasm. this is a double membrane. envelope is perforated by pore structure

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chromosomes

structures that carry the genetic information. each eukaryotic species has a unique number of chromosomes

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chromatin

complex of DNA and proteins making up chromosomes

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nucleolus

-dense granules and fibers adjoining part of the chromatin. -this is where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized.

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ribosomes

consist of rRNA and proteins; carry out protein synthesis.

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vesicles

little sacs made out of membrane material which is transports stuff

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endoplasmic reticulum

network of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae. ER membrane is continuous with the nuclear envelope.

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smooth ER

lacks ribosomes

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functions include

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  1. synthesis of lipids

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  1. metabolism of carbohydrates

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  1. detox of drugs and poison

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  1. storage of calcium ions

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rough ER

studded with ribosomes

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functions include the production of secretory proteins. teh rough ER keeps these separate from proteins that will remain in the cytosol.

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also membrane factory of the cell by adding phospholipids and proteins to its own membrane

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glycoproteins

many secretory proteins are these.

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starch

polymer of glucose monomers as granules within cellular structures

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glycogen

storage within animal cells typically in the muscles or liver and releases glucose when the demand for sugar rises via hydrolysis.

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cellulose

major component of cell walls. can not be digested by humans

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80

microfibrils

units of cellulose molecules that are bonded

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81

chitin

used by arthropods (insects, crustaceans etc) to build their exoskeleton.

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types of lipids

fats, phospholipids, steroids

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triacylglycerols

fats or oils

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saturated fatty acid

as many H as possible, no double bonds. most animal fats

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85

unsaturated fatty acids

at least one double bond. double bonds are typically cis and cause a kink in the tail.

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86

polypeptides

polymer of amino acid monomers

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87

amino acid

have an amino group and a carboxyl group as well as an H and a side chain called "R" and there are many different side chains.

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peptide bond

resulting covalent bond between amino acids

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shape of protein

polypeptides spontaneously fold and assume the functioal structure of that protein.

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90

primary structure

unique linear chain of amino acids

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secondary structure

based off of hydrogen bonds formed b/w the repeated constituents of the polypeptide backbone

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alpha helix

coil held together by H bonds bw every 4th amino acid

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beta pleated sheet

pleats created by H bonds bw parallel polypeptide backbones

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tertiary structure

shape determined by the interactions of the side chains

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95

hydrophobic interaction

hydrophobic side chains tend to cluster together, held by van der waals interactions

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96

gene

unit of inheritance

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97

DNA and RNA

made up of sugar (ribose), nitrogenous bases

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98

virus

gene packaged in a protein coat and sometimes a membranous envelope. They cannot reproduce without a host

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99

genomes of viruses

can be either single or double stranded DNA or RNA and are identified as either DNA or RNA in the name

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100

viral envelope

derived from membrane of the host cell consist of host phospholipids and membrane proteins as well as glycoproteins and proteins of the virus.

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