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The process by which 1n gametes become the 2n zygote

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Biology

i am going to fail pt. 2

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1

The process by which 1n gametes become the 2n zygote

fertilization

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2

The cell which undergoes meiosis to generate spores

spore mother cell

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3

The process by which Gametophytes generate the gametes

mitosis

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4

The cell that develops into the embryo

zygote

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5

Gametophyte

haploid

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6

Spore mother cell

diploid

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7

Spore

haploid

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8

Sperm

haploid

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9

Embryo

diploid

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10

Zygote

diploid

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11

Sporophyte

diploid

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12

Egg

haploid

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13

What is the function of the cuticle in plants?

protects against desiccation

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14

A haploid reproductive cell capable of developing in an adult without fusion with another cell. usually unicellular.

spore

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15

a multicellular male gametophyte found in angiosperms and gymnosperms.

pollen

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16

In bryophytes, the __________ generation is dominant.

gametophytes

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17

in ferns and seed plants the ________ generation is dominant.

sporophytes

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18

When a bee lands on a flower, it collects pollen on its body. Pollen, the male reproductive structure, contains the male gamete, also called ____________.

sperm

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19

The bee will then fly from one flower to another, bringing the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure. This process is called _____________.

pollination

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20

It is not until the sperm travels down the female part of the plant and unites with the egg, a process called ____, that the _ is formed and a new plant generation can begin.

fertilization, zygote

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21

The apical meristem is responsible for __________ growth which is growth in length.

primary

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22

The lateral meristem is responsible for __________ growth and woody stems have 2 lateral meristems.

secondary

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23

one lateral meristem is the Vascular cambium which produces secondary ___________ and secondary ___________ . Secondary xylem is the main component of wood.

xylem, phloem

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24

consist of undifferentiated cells

meristems

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25

they divide to give rise to differentiating daughter cells

meristems

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26

they allow for plant growth

meristems

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27

true or false: trees and shrubs have lateral meristems but do not have apical meristems.

false

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28

The vascular cambium is found __________.

in between the xylem and phloem

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29

In which of the following biomes would you be least likely to find annual growth rings.

tropical rain forest

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30

What would occur first when a tree is girdled?

death to the roots of the tree, because they would no longer be able to receive carbohydrates from the leaves.

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31

The solute potential of a cell will always be __________ . The pressure potential of a cell will always be _________.

negative, positive

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32

A cell has a Solute potential of -0.4MPa, and a Pressure potential of 0.2MPa. This means that the Water potential of that cell is _. If this cell is placed in a beaker with a Solute potential of -0.2MPA, the water _____ (There will be no net movement of water.)

-0.2MPa, will not move in or out

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33

A cell has a Solute potential of -0.7MPa, and a Pressure potential of 0.4MPa. This means that the Water potential of that cell is_. If this cell is placed in a beaker with a Solute potential of -0.6MPA, the water _ of the cell .

-0.3MPa ,will move out

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34

If you fertilize your house plant too often, the plant will look wilted even though the soil is wet. This is because the solute potential in the root cells is _____________ compared to the solute potential surrounding the root cells. This causes the water __________ the root cells .

more positive, to leave

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35

Transpiration in plants occurs during the day when guard cells are turgid, creating ______________ pressure in the xylem. At night, these cells close when __________________ .

negative, ABA is synthesized

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36

Negative pressure in the Xylem is created because the xylem is essentially a tube. _____________ causes the negative pressure because the water potential in the air is ___________ compared to the water potential of the leaf. This causes the water to ___________ . Due to cohesion and adhesion, water molecules are pulled through the xylem.

transpiration, more negative, exit the leaf

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37

Cohesion

water adheres to itself

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38

Adhesion

water adheres to the walls of the xylem

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39

Roots

positive pressure creates a "pushing" force

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40

Transpiration

negative pressure creates a "pulling" force

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41

transport through xylem vessels can be blocked by _______, which are air bubbles in the xylem.

cavitation

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42

the active transport of sugars in the sieve tube members is called:

translocation

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43

what would occur is debris lodges in the stomata and prevents them from closing?

increased transpiration

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44

What are 2 main reasons that plants exposed to smoke may see a decrease by as much as 50% in photosynthesis?

The destruction of chlorophyll and the impeding of the movement of carbon dioxide into the plant through the leaf.

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45

Explain how clogged stomata may cause water stress in plants.

The pore is stuck open and can no longer function correctly, which causes transpiration to continuously occur through the stomata and water loss causes stress to the plant. The plant will lose too much water.

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46

What are 3 ways plants can benefit from fire?

The three ways that plants can benefit from fire are: seed germination, seed dispersal, and the ash can act as a good fertilizer.

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47

True or False: Rhizobium are the most common bacteria on the planet and help explain why Nitrogen is rare in the atmosphere but found in great abundance in its organic form.

false,

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48

The plant obtains nitrogen from this beneficial symbiotic relationship

the rhizobia gain oxygen from this beneficial symbiotic relationship

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49

The plant obtains phosphorous and micronutrients from this beneficial symbiotic relationship

the mycorrhiza fungi gain carbohydrates from this beneficial symbiotic relationship

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50

The carnivorous plant obtains nitrogen from this interaction

the insect is consumed in this interaction

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51

The parasitic plant obtains carbohydrates and sometimes other nutrients from this interaction

the host, such as another plant or fungi, gains nothing and is often damaged in this interaction.

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52

The process of converting a gas into an organic compound is called _________ .

fixation

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53

In plants, the conversion of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates takes place in the ___________.

chloroplasts

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54

Plants cannot access atmospheric nitrogen due to its triple bond. To convert this gas into organic matter, bacteria such as rhizobia convert this compound into ___________.

nitrates

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55

Silica inclusions and thorns

first line physical defense mechanism

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56

Allelopathy

one plant produces a chemical that influences other plants

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57

Jasmonic Acid

inducible defense triggered by wounding

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58

Airborne signal

attracts parasitic wasps to lay eggs on plant eating caterpillars

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59

Systemic Acquired Resistance

temporary broad ranging defense to a pathogen

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60

Which macronutrients are absorbed from the soil by the plant roots

hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium

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61

Uptake of positive ions by plants roots occurs by...

cation exchange

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62

what is involved in pathogen response for plants?

hypersensitive response, systemic acquired resistance, gene-for-gene hypothesis

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63

what is considered food that directly supplies energy to plant cells?

sugars

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64

etiolation

process of a seedling using its stored carbohydrates to grow and reach the sunlight

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65

chlorophyll

helps plants produce carbohydrates from CO2, water, and sunlight

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66

phytochrome

pigment used for plant growth signaling

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67

phototropism

a plant is placed in a window and over time it bends towards the sunlight

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68

thigmotropism

hops grow up to 20 inches per week by wrapping tendrils around support trellises.

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69

photomorphogenesis

a tree in a crowded forest begins to grow rapidly taller to obtain more light

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70

thigmomorphogenesis

a tree on a windy hillside is shaped by mechanical force and results in few branches on the windward side.

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71

vernalization

process where a plant in stimulated to bloom only after a cold period

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72

phase change

process where a plant alters its physical appearance and develops the competency to flower.

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73

Gravity is perceived by the cell, possibly by the sinking of ____________. This mechanical signal is transduced into a physiological signal in the gravity-sensing cell, and then the signal is sent to other cells, with the hormone auxin playing a role. Differential cell ___________ occurs, affecting cells in the "up" and "down" sides of the root or shoot and causing it to curve in the appropriate direction. Roots are positivelygravitrophic, while shoots are negatively so.

amyloplasts, elongation

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74

Seeds become dormant

abscisic acid

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75

Roots orient downwards towards the soil and shoots orient upward

auxin

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76

Development of fruit and seeds

auxin

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77

Fruit ripening

ethylene

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78

Abscission of leaves

ethylene

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79

In the summer, when nights are short a portion of the _____________ will still be present at dawn.

pfr

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80

High levels of Pfr trigger development of flower primordia in

long day plants

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81

true or false: plant growth, development, and response to the environment is coordinated by environmental cues and chemical signals.

true

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82

what plant response would result in directional growth?

tropism

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83

the active form of phytochrome is:

phytochrome far red

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84

what is true about phytochrome

phytochrome red absorbs red light

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85

(t or f) after a long night, very little pfr will remain in plant leaves at dawn

true

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86

(t or f) after a short night, more pfr will remain in leaves at dawn

true

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87

the suppression of lateral buds by auxin is called:

apical dominance

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88

which of the following would inhibit flowering

a short day plant that has a period of dark interrupted by a flash of light

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89

What is the male spore known as in angiosperm reproduction?

the microspore

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90

What is the megagametophyte also know as in angiosperm reproduction?

the embryo sac

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91

Dr. Emori grows squash in her garden. She notices that only about 50% of the flowers on her squash develop into zucchini. The other 50% shrivel up and fall off. Assuming this is a perfectly healthy plant, what can best explain this phenomenon?

the zucchini is monoecious

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92

the flower petals are collectively called:

the corolla

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93

which of the following results in production of microspores and megaspores

meiosis

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94

what refers to an immature plant contained in a seed

embryo

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95

Ovules are found inside of the _________.

ovary

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96

_________ will develop into 2 sperm as well as the ________ which will help the sperm reach the ovules.

pollen grain, pollen tube

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97

Union of 1 sperm with the ___________ produces endosperm and union of the other sperm with the egg forms the zygote.

polar nuclei

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98

_________ fertilization is unique to angiosperms.

Double

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99

Unfiltered sunlight is high in red light wavelengths and low in far-red light wavelengths. During the day a plant receiving unfiltered sunlight will have more ____________ at the end of the day.

pfr

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100

At night the Pfr slowly reverts back to Pr. In the middle latitudes during the winter, when nights are long,___________ of the Pfr will revert to Pr overnight.

all

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