Psych Exam Review

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Unit 1: What is Psychhology? Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. Which of these research methods are used most often by modern psychologists? Select one: a. Interviews b. Experimentation and observation c. Problem solving d. Causation studies

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1

Unit 1: What is Psychhology? Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. Which of these research methods are used most often by modern psychologists? Select one: a. Interviews b. Experimentation and observation c. Problem solving d. Causation studies

b. Experimentation and observation

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Which of the following are NOT considered one of the founders of psychology? Select one: a. B.F. Skinner b. Noam Chomsky c. Carl Rogers d. John Watson

b. Noam Chomsky

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Which founder of psychology is known for developing the first modern laboratory? Select one: a. B.F. Skinner b. Sigmund Freud c. William Wundt d. William James

c. William Wundt

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Sigmund Freud is best known for his belief that: Select one: a. Our current behavior is solely based on current experiences. b. Our dreams determine our personalities. c. Our behavior is often the result of experiences from our childhood. d. Our conscious thoughts portray our belief system.

c. Our behavior is often the result of experiences from our childhood.

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B.F. Skinner is best known for the development of _____. Select one: a. Operant conditioning b. Psychoanalysis c. Observational behavior d. Classical conditioning

a. Operant conditioning

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Which US-born founder of psychology was influenced by Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution? Select one: a. B.F. Skinner b. William James c. William Wundt d. Sigmund Freud

b. William James

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Which of the founders would have said that little Johnny's behavior of tearing up his sister's dolls was influenced ONLY by learned actions within his environment? Select one: a. William James b. WIlliam Wundt c. Carl Rogers d. John Watson

d. John Watson

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Carl Rogers is best known as a _____. Select one: a. Humanist b. Psychoanalyst c. Behaviorist d. Structuralist

a. Humanist

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What are the major goals of Psychology as a science? Select one: a. To make comparisons between human and animal behavior. b. To describe, explain and predict human behavior. c. To perform experiments on human behavior d. To develop a set of skills necessary for all high achieving people

b. To describe, explain and predict human behavior.

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Psychology as a science was developed by the ideas generated in the early 1800's. Select one: True False

False

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Structuralism can be defined as the study of the elements of consciousness. Which of the following is an example of Structuralism? Select one: a. An apple has feelings that need to be explored and understood. b. Seeing an apple in your dreams means that red is your favorite color. c. An apple is red, crisp, hard and sweet. d. An apple can be used as an award for good behavior.

c. An apple is red, crisp, hard and sweet.

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Functionalism is a school in psychology which states that the human behavior and our mental state is actively adapting to our external environment. That is how human beings mentally function, by constantly adapting themselves to the external environment and functioning accordingly. Therefore, a functionalist might study: Select one: a. What unconscious decisions influence behavior in school. b. The evolution of man from apes to modern humans. [Not quite. Think about Functionalism as an approach to human consciousness by which we adapt our behavior, attitudes, and beliefs to our environment.] c. How the brain and hormones influence behavior in school. [Not quite. Think about Functionalism as an approach to human consciousness by which we adapt our behavior, attitudes, and beliefs to our environment.] d. The relationship between single-parent families and failure rates of students in school.

Not B or C

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The word 'Psychoanalysis' refers to two related objects:

The psychological theory of the mind developed by Freud and his followers; and The clinical practice developed by Freud and his followers in which their theory is applied to helping people, and from which they further developed the theory. Which of the following might a psychoanalytic psychologist do on a daily basis?

Select one: a. Observe behavior in a park setting. b. Perform a group therapy session to allow patients to help each other. c. Talk to a client in a private setting about their thought, feelings, and dreams. d. Provide medication to help with sleeplessness.

c. Talk to a client in a private setting about their thought, feelings, and dreams.

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Which psychological perspective might be best when teaching a dog to sit and stay? Select one: a. Social-Culturalism b. Behaviorism c. Psychoanalysis d. Humanism

b. Behaviorism

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Modern psychologists don't all agree on the best way to understand human behavior and thought processes or the best treatment plan for disorders. Select one: True False

True

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Based on your readings in this unit, which of the schools of psychology do you think the following quotation represents? "I still believe, in spite of everything, that people are truly good at heart." (Anne Frank) Select one: a. Behaviorism b. Humanism c. Psychoanalysis d. Functionalism

b. Humanism

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Many studies cannot ethically be conducted as experiments with typical human participants, but they ______. Select one: a. are possible to conduct using logical and intuitive options b. are not possible to conduct using empirical methods c. are possible to conduct using animals d. are possible to conduct using participants from prison populations

c. are possible to conduct using animals

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Which scenario demonstrates a situation where psychologists have NOT used proper ethics in a human experiment? Select one: a. A researcher forces an individual to participate in an experiment without their consent. b. A researcher makes it clear to an individual that they will not be harmed in anyway during the experiment. c. A researcher makes it clear to an individual that they will be participating in an experiment involving conditioning and training. d. A researcher makes it clear to an individual that their information will be kept strictly confidential. Feedback

a. A researcher forces an individual to participate in an experiment without their consent.

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Which of the following are ways to test a hypothesis? Select one: a. Correlation research b. All of these answers c. Case studies d. Experimental groups

b. All of these answers

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Which of the following is the career best-suited for a psychologist interested in studying legal issues and criminal behavior? Select one: a. Clinical Psychologist b. Health Psychologist c. Forensic Psychologists d. Developmental Psychologist

c. Forensic Psychologists

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According to "The 5 Top Reasons to Study Psychology," the Psychology Today article you read about courses and careers in the field of psychology, classes in research and statistics are both annoying and useless for careers in psychology. Select one: True False

False

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Psychology plays an important role in all aspects of our society. Select one: True False

True

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Psychology can be seen and applied to our lives each and every day. Select one: True False

True

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Which statement best describes correlational research? Select one: a. This method uses a control and an experimental group in which the variables are manipulated by the researchers. b. A case study is one example of correlational research. c. Correlation equals causation. d. This type of research cannot prove that one variable causes the other, but it can show a relationship. This relationship is called a correlation.

d. This type of research cannot prove that one variable causes the other, but it can show a relationship. This relationship is called a correlation.

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Psychology is a process of asking interesting questions and attempting to answer them through limited data and observation. Select one: True False

False

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Unit 2: Sensation and Perception Which of the following statements about perception is true? Select one: a. Sensation and perception have no relationship at all. b. Perception happens independently from sensation. c. Perception is formed based on information received through the senses. d. All the statements are true.

c. Perception is formed based on information received through the senses.

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You are so engrossed playing a video game that you fail to notice when someone calls your name. This is an example of _____. Select one: a. Bottom-up processing b. Selective attention c. Top-down processing d. Sensory deprivation

b. Selective attention

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A dog has the ability to hear sounds not audible to humans. This is an example of _____. Select one: a. Pitch b. Absolute threshold c. Audition d. Sensory adaptation

b. Absolute threshold

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A smoker's inability to smell tobacco in their own clothing or home is an example of _____. Select one: a. Sensory adaptation b. Multimodal perception c. Absolute threshold d. Perceptual Illusion

a. Sensory adaptation

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Hearing aids can help people who have _____ deafness. Select one: a. Artificial b. Conductive c. Sensorineural d. Chochlear

b. Conductive

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Which of the following is NOT one of the Five Senses? Select one: a. Touch b. Vision c. Smell d. Perception

d. Perception

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The eye is to sensation as the brain is to _____. Select one: a. Feeling b. Perception c. Hearing d. Impression

b. Perception

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A painter who is able to tell the difference between two similar shades of paint is demonstrating _____. Select one: a. Difference threshold b. Absolute threshold c. Weber's law d. Sensory adaptation

a. Difference threshold

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Which of the following exemplifies the sense of audition? Select one: a. Hearing a song on the radio b. Tasting warm bread covered in pumpkin butter c. Petting a dog d. Smelling a flower

a. Hearing a song on the radio

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Which of the following exemplifies olfaction? Select one: a. Tasting white chocolate fudge b. Smelling cookies in the oven c. Feeling the warmth of the sun d. Hearing an airplane fly overhead

b. Smelling cookies in the oven

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Which one of the following is NOT a type of Perceptual Constancy? Select one: a. Size b. Brightness c. Reflection d. Color

c. Reflection

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Felix is riding his bicycle. His ability to sense how his torso is adjusting to the speed of his cycling and how his legs are pumping up and down is called _____. Select one: a. Olfaction b. Nociception c. Thermoception d. Kinesthesia

d. Kinesthesia

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Why are olfaction and gustation called chemical senses? Select one: a. They have sensory receptors that respond to molecules in the food we eat or in the air we breathe. b. We cannot use these senses without the presence of specific chemicals in the body. c. They are unrelated to biological senses. d. Neither one has sensory receptors that respond to molecules in the food we eat or in the air we breathe.

a. They have sensory receptors that respond to molecules in the food we eat or in the air we breathe.

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Which of the following statements best describes trichromatic theory and opponent-process theory? Select one: a. Research has not supported either theory. b. The trichromatic theory is more accurate than the opponent-process theory. c. The theories are equally accurate, but they apply to different levels of the nervous system. d. The opponent-process theory is more accurate than the trichromatic theory.

c. The theories are equally accurate, but they apply to different levels of the nervous system.

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What should be changed to make the following sentence true? "Neuropathic pain is pain from damage to neurons of either the brain or central nervous system." Select one: a. The word "central" should be changed to the word "middle." b. The word "neuropathic" should be changed to the word "neurosympathetic." c. The word "neurons" should be changed to the word "protons." d. The word "brain" should be changed to the word "peripheral."

d. The word "brain" should be changed to the word "peripheral."

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Which of the following statements about olfactory receptors is false? Select one: a. They are located in a mucous membrane at the top of the nose. b. They have small, hair-like extensions. c. They are cells. d. They are bulb-like structures at the tip of the frontal lobe where the olfactory nerves begin.

d. They are bulb-like structures at the tip of the frontal lobe where the olfactory nerves begin.

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Match the following Gestalt terms to their description. Each term is used only once. The tendency to perceive a complete or whole figure even when there are gaps in what your senses tell you.

  • Closure Perception of figures against a background

  • Figure-ground The tendency to see a smooth, continuous pattern even when our senses tell us otherwise.

  • Continuity The tendency to group items we think are similar as belonging together

  • Similarity The tendency to group objects that are located next to each other

  • Proximity

Already given in question

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What is the difference between monocular and binocular depth cues? Select one: a. Neither choice is correct b. Binocular cues require both eyes to be seen. c. Both choices are correct d. Monocular cues only need one eye to be perceived.

c. Both choices are correct

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Which of the following factors do NOT influence perceptual cues for interpreting stimuli? Select one: a. Experience b. Culture c. Expectations d. All these choices are correct

d. All these choices are correct

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Ebbinghaus' Titchener circles are one of the most famous examples of a _____. Select one: a. Perceptual constancy b. Binocular cues c. Perceptual illusion d. Monocular cues

c. Perceptual illusion

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How many different hues of color can the average person detect? Select one: a. One thousand b. One million c. One hundred d. Ten

b. One million

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Which type of illusion is characterized by contrasting colors created with these rotating circles?

Image is public domain. No attribution or linking required.

Select one: a. Motion illusion b. Depth illusion c. False illusion d. Shape illusion

a. Motion illusion https://scde-genius.mrooms.net/pluginfile.php/1739814/question/questiontext/7150133/22/73972084/rotating_circles.png

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The following image is an example of what principle of perception?

The image is public domain from Pixabay (opens in a new window). No attribution required [CC0 Creative Commons] (opens in a new window).

Select one: a. Similarity b. Closure c.Figure-ground d. Proximity

c. Figure-ground https://scde-genius.mrooms.net/pluginfile.php/1739814/question/questiontext/7150133/23/73972085/Man%20playing%20sax%20or%20woman.png

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You are at a party with hundreds of guests and you hear your name mentioned in a conversation across the room, this is an example of _____? Select one: a. Visual illusions b. Proximity c. Selective attention d. Retinal disparity

c. Selective attention

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Which of the following quotes best describes the relationship between sensation and perception? Select one: a. "I can't change the direction of the wind, but I can adjust my sails to always reach my destination." (Jimmy Dean) b. "There are many ways of going forward, but only one way of standing still." (Franklin D. Roosevelt) c. "The eye sees only what the mind is prepared to comprehend" (Henri Bergson). d. "Success is no accident. It is hard work, perseverance, learning, studying, sacrifice and most of all, love of what you are doing or learning to do." (Pele)

c. "The eye sees only what the mind is prepared to comprehend" (Henri Bergson).

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Unit 3: Thinking About Thinking From a psychological perspective, the term cognition means _____. Select one: a. Determining b. Processing c. Understanding d. Thinking

d. Thinking

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The best example or representation of a concept is called a _____. Select one: a. Amalgamation b. Archetype c. Prototype d. Unification

c. Prototype

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Which underlined word should be changed to make the following sentence true? "A prototype is a category or grouping of linguistic information, objects, ideas, or life experiences." Select one: a. The word "category" should be changed to the word "type." b. The words "objects" and "ideas" should be eliminated. c. The word "linguistic" should be changed to the word "emotional." d. The word "prototype" should be changed to the word "concept."

d. The word "prototype" should be changed to the word "concept."

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Which of the following statements about the "aha" moment is NOT correct? Select one: a. Solving some problems requires us to "think outside the box." b. The "aha" moment is the same thing as insight. c. The "aha" moment usually happens suddenly. d. The "aha" moment occurs immediately upon solving a problem with no repeated failures or attempts.

d. The "aha" moment occurs immediately upon solving a problem with no repeated failures or attempts.

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According to Professor Sara J. Shettleworth, animals are capable of _____? Select one: a. Automatic behaviors b. Rage and sadness c. Impulsive behaviors d. Insight

d. Insight

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Which of the following animals are capable of insight? Select one: a. Dogs b. All of these animals c. Rats d. Parrots

b. All of these animals

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Some people believed that Koko the Gorilla had the ability to communicate through the use of _____. Select one: a. Sign language b. Intellectual thoughts c. Vocalizations d. Verbal cues

a. Sign language

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In attempting to find and purchase high-quality makeup products, Carla reminds herself that the most expensive brands are the best. Carla's self-reminder illustrates the use of a(n) _____. Select one: a. Heuristic b. Algorithm c. Framing effect d. Cognitive dissonance

a. Heuristic

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A robin is judged to be a better example of a bird than some others, a parrot or flamingo, for example. Therefore, a robin would be considered a(n) _______ of birds. Select one: a. Ideal b. Imprint c. Reciprocal d. Prototype

d. Prototype

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People tend to seek out and find more convincing evidence that is consistent with an already-held view. This pattern, which can lead one astray, is known as _____? Select one: a. Fundamental attribution error b. Confirmation bias c. Hindsight bias d. Self-serving bias

b. Confirmation bias

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You would be more likely to agree to a surgery with a 50% success rate than a 50% failure rate. What psychological concept illustrates this concept? Select one: a. Confirmation bias b. Hindsight bias c. Algorithms d. Framing effect

d. Framing effect

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Marco was having a difficult time solving a problem in his Statistics class. He worked the problem in several different ways until he finally came up with the correct answer. This is an example of _____? Select one: a. Algorithms b. Trial and error c. Heuristics d. Top-down processing

b. Trial and error

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Continuing to write the past years date on assignments in class is an example of _____. Select one: a. Proactive interference b. Making good judgments c. Spontaneous decision making d. Retroactive interference

a. Proactive interference

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Forgetting your old phone number after getting a new one is an example of _____. Select one: a. Hindsight bias b. Bottom-up processing c. Retroactive interference d. Proactive interference

c. Retroactive interference

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Your teacher has given you so much information for a research topic that you are unable to sort it all out to find what you are actually looking for. This is an example of which obstacle to decision making? Select one: a. Analysis paralysis b. Vested interests c. Having too little information d. Too many people

a. Analysis paralysis

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The Gilberts have a large family with 11 children. They need to pick a new car that will serve everyone, including 4 teenagers who are driving age or approaching it. Their criteria include safety, gas mileage, reliability, and seating for 14. They are following the rational decision-making process so that they can have a family discussion without heated words. What is their next step? Select one: a. Evaluate alternatives b. Select the best alternative c. Weight the decision criteria d. Identify the problem

c. Weight the decision criteria

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Sometimes you must use both ______ and ________ in order to make an effective decision. Select one: a. Arguments ... reasoning b. Thoughts ... ideas c. Intuition ... reasoning d. Stubbornness ... "gut" feelings

c. Intuition ... reasoning

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Based on what you know about decision making, answer the following question. You have a big project and you have a month in advance to complete it when should you start it? Select one: a. Start the project one week before its due. b. Start the project two weeks before its due. c. Start researching ideas and do a little bit of the project each day until your finished. d. Start by finding and copying a project from the Internet.

c. Start researching ideas and do a little bit of the project each day until your finished.

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Carmela believes her assistant, Lian, is incompetent. She notices only what Lian does wrong while ignoring the above average quality of most of her work. This exemplifies _____ bias. Select one: a. Confirmation b. Anchoring c. Hindsight d. Representational

a. Confirmation

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You are at a party and someone offers you an illegal drug. Which of the following examples show the BEST use of good judgment? Select one: a. Telling all your friends about it and offering them some. b. None of these examples show good judgement. c. Taking the substance from your friend and just putting it in your pocket. d. Politely refusing the substance and leaving the party.

d. Politely refusing the substance and leaving the party.

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When should you use good judgment? Select one: a. When problem solving b. When making decisions c. When analyzing d. When doing all of these answers

d. When doing all of these answers

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Bill uses a "rule of thumb" when solving a maze quickly on an iPad app. He is using a(n) _____. Select one: a. Mental set b. Heuristic c. Algorithm d. Mental representation

b. Heuristic

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A problem-solving strategy in which an individual or group produces numerous ideas and evaluates them only after all ideas have been collected is called _____. Select one: a. Critiquing b. Convergent thinking c. Brainstorming d. Functional analysis

c. Brainstorming

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Problem-solving when we already know all the possible solutions or choices is called _____. Select one: a. Divergent thinking b. Decision making c. Functional fixedness d. Convergent thinking

b. Decision making

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The tendency people have to view events as more predictable than they really are based on past information is called _____. Select one: a. Confirmation bias b. Counterfactual thinking c. Framing d. Hindsight bias

d. Hindsight bias

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In classical conditioning, the association that is learned is between a _____. Select one: a. Conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned response b. Neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus c. Neutral response and a conditioned response d. Neutral stimulus and a neutral response

b. Neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus

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Which of the following is a process by which we learn to associate stimuli and, consequently, to anticipate events? Select one: a. Classical conditioning b. Controlled conditioning c. Physiological conditioning d. Psychic conditioning

a. Classical conditioning

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In the initial period of learning, _____ describes when an organism learns to connect a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. Select one: a. Neutral stimulate b. Extinction c. Acquisition d. Conditioning

c. Acquisition

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_____ is known for using Little Albert in his studies on human emotion. Select one: a. B.F. Skinner b. Ivan Pavlov c. John B. Watson d. Edward Thorndike

c. John B. Watson

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In _____ conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus unconditionally elicits a reaction. For example, a bit of black pepper blown into the eye produces a blinking response. Select one: a. Response b. Stimulus c. Classical d. Operant

c. Classical

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Grace whistles while tickling Khaleel with a feather. Eventually, Khaleel starts to squirm and giggle every time Grace whistles, even when he is not being tickled. In this example, squirming and giggling is a(n) _____. Select one: a. Unconditioned response b. Conditioned response c. Unconditioned stimulus d. Conditioned stimulus

b. Conditioned response

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Kieran is attempting to condition a parrot to greet him when he enters the room. He repeatedly pairs his entry to the room with a treat for the parrot. Kieran can say that _____ has occurred as soon as the parrot greets him in response to his entry. Select one: a. Extinction b. Stimulation c. Acquisition d. Secondary conditioning

c. Acquisition

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What did John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrate with their studies of Little Albert? Select one: a. Emotion can be a conditioned response b. Fear cannot be a conditioned response c. Boys display more fear than girls d. Boys display fear differently from girls

a. Emotion can be a conditioned response

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Which experiment involves the use of classical conditioning? Select one: a. Knowing that a student fears exams, the instructor wears a bright red shirt only on exam day, every exam day, to see how long it is before the red shirt becomes an object of fear to the student b. Rewarding a boy for finishing his vegetables with ice cream and counting how many nights of reinforcement are required before he voluntarily eats his vegetables c. Determining how long it takes a person to learn how to knit if he is only allowed to watch YouTube videos of people knitting d. Blindfolding someone and timing him to see how long he takes to find a button hidden in a room

a. Knowing that a student fears exams, the instructor wears a bright red shirt only on exam day, every exam day, to see how long it is before the red shirt becomes an object of fear to the student

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Thorndike is best known for the experiments where he _____. Select one: a. Used dogs in cages to study the effect of reinforcement and punishment on behavior b. Used dogs in puzzle boxes to study the effect of reinforcement and punishment on development c. Used cats in cages to study the effect of reinforcement and punishment on development d. Used cats in puzzle boxes to study the effect of reinforcement and punishment on behavior

d. Used cats in puzzle boxes to study the effect of reinforcement and punishment on behavior

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Which of the following statements is part of Thorndike's Law of Effect? Select one: a. Behaviors followed by reinforcements or punishments are equally likely to occur again in the future. b. Behaviors followed by punishments are more likely to occur again in the future. c. Behaviors caused by intrinsic motivation are more likely to lead to reinforcement. d. Behaviors followed by reinforcements are more likely to occur again in the future.

d. Behaviors followed by reinforcements are more likely to occur again in the future.

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Dave's boss told him that he doesn't have to attend the company picnic (which everybody dislikes) if Dave meets his sales quota this month. Dave's boss is using _____. Select one: a. Negative punishment b. Positive reinforcement c. Negative reinforcement d. Positive punishment

c. Negative reinforcement

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Harold catches fish throughout the day at unpredictable intervals. Which reinforcement schedule is this? Select one: a. Variable ratio b. Variable interval c. Fixed ratio d. Fixed interval

b. Variable interval

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In operant conditioning, what describes adding something to decrease the likelihood of behavior? Select one: a. Extinction b. Acquisition c. Recovery d. Punishment

d. Punishment

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Which of the following is an example of operant conditioning? Select one: a. When a dog refuses to play dead b. When a cat and a dog share the same water bowl c. When a dog plays dead she gets a treat in order to encourage her to repeat the behavior d. When a cat learns to drool at the sound of a can opener

c. When a dog plays dead she gets a treat in order to encourage her to repeat the behavior

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Jemma wants to teach her son to say thank you. Every time he says thank you, Jemma praises him and gives him a hug. Which reinforcement schedule is this? Select one: a. Continuous b. Primary c. Partial d. Secondary

a. Continuous

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Which of the following is an example of a variable ratio reinforcement schedule? Select one: a. Bill traveling to Myrtle Beach for vacation every June b. Joyce playing scratch-off lottery tickets c. Nikita taking her dog to the vet once a year d. Jeremy checking YouTube every morning before work

b. Joyce playing scratch-off lottery tickets

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Which statement about B. F. Skinner is correct? Select one: a. He is famous for demonstrating the principles of operant conditioning: The motivation for a behavior happens after the behavior is demonstrated b. His experiments demonstrated that organisms can learn even if they do not receive immediate reinforcement. c. He worked with Edward C. Tolman to prove that fear is both an instinct and a reflex. d. He placed hungry rats in a maze with no reward for finding their way through it, and he studied a comparison group that was rewarded with food at the end of the maze.

a. He is famous for demonstrating the principles of operant conditioning: The motivation for a behavior happens after the behavior is demonstrated

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Which of the following experiments involves the use of operant conditioning? Select one: a. Pairing a puff of air to the eye with seeing the color red in order to find out how many repetitions it will take for someone to blink when he sees the color red b. Rewarding a child for finishing his oatmeal mush and counting how many times the child needs to be rewarded before he finishes his oatmeal voluntarily c. Determining how long it takes someone to learn how to fish if he is only allowed to watch other people fishing d. Blindfolding someone and timing him to see how long it takes him to estimate the size of a room

b. Rewarding a child for finishing his oatmeal mush and counting how many times the child needs to be rewarded before he finishes his oatmeal voluntarily

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Which of the following experiments involves the use of observation learning theory? Select one: a. Blindfolding someone and timing her to see how long it takes her to determine what she is eating b. Rewarding a girl for finishing her homework with ice cream and counting how much homework she will complete before becoming sick of ice cream c. Determining how long it takes a person to learn how to knit if she is only allowed to watch YouTube videos of people knitting d. Pairing a puff of air to the eye with a handshake to see how long it will take someone to blink before offering her hand

c. Determining how long it takes a person to learn how to knit if she is only allowed to watch YouTube videos of people knitting

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Which of these statements is true for Albert Bandura? Select one: a. Fear is a conditioned response. b. Learning can occur by watching others and modeling what they do or say. c. Organisms cannot learn if they do not receive immediate reinforcement. d. Learning is the result of reinforcing desired behavior at fixed intervals.

b. Learning can occur by watching others and modeling what they do or say.

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If the principles of social learning theory are true, then children may model aggressive behavior _____. Select one: a. After dreaming about having a fight with their parents b. After seeing a television character being punished for taking violent action against another character c. After seeing a television character receive a reward for taking violent action against another character d. After dreaming they were on television

c. After seeing a television character receive a reward for taking violent action against another character

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What is the main idea of social learning theory? Select one: a. Fear is a conditioned response. b. One can learn new behaviors by observing others. c. Learning can occur when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. d. Behavior is motivated by the consequences we receive for the behavior: reinforcements and punishments.

b. One can learn new behaviors by observing others.

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Which of the following is an example of observational learning? Select one: a. Your brother refusing to play with you b. Learning to speak Spanish by attending Spanish class c. Your father teaching you how to write by holding your hand as you form the letters d. Teaching yourself yoga by watching a yoga group in the park

d. Teaching yourself yoga by watching a yoga group in the park

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Dymesha watches her older sister do headstands. Dymesha falls over when she attempts to do a headstand herself. She watches her older sister more carefully, and she notices that her sister leans back slightly to complete her headstand. Dymesha is then able to do headstands herself. Which type of learning is this? Select one: a. Conditioning b. Classical c. Observational d. Operant

c. Observational

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