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Visual Cues

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732 Terms

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Visual Cues

depth, form, motion, constancy

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Binocular Cues

retinal disparity and convergence

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Monocular cues

relative size, interposition, relative clarity, texture gradient, relative height, relative motion, linear perspective, light and shadow

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Weber's Law

ΔI=I/k

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Absolute threshold of sensation

minimum intensity of stimulus needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time

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Just Noticable Difference Threshold

the smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time

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semicircular canals

three fluid-filled canals in the inner ear responsible for our sense of balance

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otolithic organs (utricle and saccule)

Help us to detect linear acceleration and head positioning

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Signal Detection Theory

how we make decision under conditions of uncertainty - discerning between important stimuli and unimportant "noise"

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bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information

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top-down processing

the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole

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Rods

retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

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Cones

retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

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Phototransduction cascade

What occurs when light hits the retina. Steps: light turns a rod off (rod is normally on), causing bipolar cell to turn on, which turns on a retinal ganglion cell, which is connected to the optic nerve.

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rhodopsin

A light-sensitive pigment found in the rod cells that is formed by retinal and opsin.

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Photoreceptors

rods and cones

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Fovea

the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster

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Blindspot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there

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trichromatic theory

theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: red, blue, and green

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Hair Cell

one of the receptor cells for hearing in the cochlea

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Sound waves

Air molecules are pressurized and try to escape, creating areas of high and low pressure

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Basilar tuning

Basilar membrane is organized in a certain way that we can hear frequencies from 20-20000 hz

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Tonotypical mapping

Primary auditory cortex has parts specialized for varying frequencies

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Sensory Narrow Hearing Loss

They have a problem with conduction of sound waves from cochlea to brain

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Cochlear Implants

Sound -> microphone -> transmitter (outside the skull) sends info to the receiver (inside). Then it sends info to the stimulator, into the cochlea, and cochlea converts electrical impulse into neural impulse that goes to brain.

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Somatosensation

The body senses, including body position, touch, skin temperature, and pain.

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thermoception

temperature perception

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Mechanoreception

detection of pressure, vibration, and movement, perceived as touch, hearing, and equilibrium

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Nociception

perception of pain

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Sensory Adaptation

change over time of receptor to a constant stimulus - downregulation

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sensory cortex

area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations; This creates topological map of body in the cortex

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Proprioception

The ability to tell where one's body is in space.

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Kinaesthesia

sense of limb movement

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TrypV1 receptor

allow us to sense temperature (thermoception) also sensitive to pain (nociception)

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A-beta fibers

Fast ones are thick and covered in myelin

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A-delta Fibers

smaller diameter, less myelin

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C Fibers

small diameter, unmyelinated

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Olfaction

sense of smell

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Olfactory bulb

the first brain structure to pick up smell information from the nose

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Pheromones

Chemical signals released by an animal that communicate information and affect the behavior of other animals of the same species.

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Gustation

the sensation of taste

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5 main tastes

sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami

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3 types of taste buds

fungiform (anterior), foliate (side), and circumvallate (back)

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Labelled lines model

Every taste cell has their own line towards a specialized part of the cortex

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consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

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Alertness

The default state of consciousness--> most people are generally alert when awake

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Daydreaming

A common variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation.

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Drowsiness

A state of impaired awareness associated with a desire or inclination to sleep

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Sleep

periodic, natural loss of consciousness--as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation

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4 sleep stages

NREM-1, NREM-2, NREM-3, REM

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Sleep stage order

N1 -> N2 -> N3 -> N2 -> REM

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NonREM 1

Dominated by theta waves. Strange sensations - hypnagonic hallucinations, hearing or seeing things that aren't there.

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NonREM 2

deeper stage of sleep. People in N2 are harder to awaken. We see more theta waves, as well as sleep spindles and K-complexes`

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NonREM 3

slow wave sleep. Characterized by delta waves. Where walking/talking in sleep happens.

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REM

Most of your other muscles are paralyzed. Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep, so paralysation inhibits actions. Most important for memory consolidation. Combination of alpha, beta, and desynchronous waves, similar to beta waves seen when awake.

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Sleep Spindles

short bursts of brain waves detected in stage 2 sleep, thought to inhibit certain perceptions so we maintain a tranquil state

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K complexes

large single spikes in the EEG, supress cortical arousal and keep you asleep

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circadian rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle

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Sigmund Freud on dreams

dreams are our unconscious thoughts and desires that need to be interpreted (little scientific support)

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Evolutionary Biology on dreams

threat simulation to prepare for real world, problem solving, no purpose

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Other dream theories

maintain brain flexibility; consolidate thoughts to long-term memory and "cleaning up" thoughts; preserve and develop neural pathways

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Manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

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Latent content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream

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activation-synthesis hypothesis

Brain gets a lot of neural impulses in brainstem, which is sometimes interpreted by the frontal cortex. Our brain tries to find meaning from random brain activity--> explanation that dreams may not actually have meaning.

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sleep deprivation

any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability

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insomnia

persistent trouble falling asleep or staying asleep

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Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

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sleep apnea

a disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep

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obstructive sleep apnea

a disorder in which a person, while asleep, stops breathing because his or her throat closes; the condition results in frequent awakenings during the night

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Cheyne-Stokes breathing

a distinct pattern of breathing characterized by quickening and deepening respirations followed by a period of apnea

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central sleep apnea

sleep disorder with periods of interrupted breathing due to a disruption in signals sent from the brain that regulate breathing

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dissociation theory of hypnosis

hypnotism is an extreme form of divided consciousness

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social influence theory of hypnosis

people do and report what's expected of them, like actors caught up in their roles

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Depressants

drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions

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Barbiturates

drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment

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Benzodiazepines

The most common group of antianxiety drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax.

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Opiates

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

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Stimulants

drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions

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Cocaine

a powerful and addictive stimulant, derived from the coca plant, producing temporarily increased alertness and euphoria

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Amphetamines and Methamphetamines

trigger release of dopamine, euphoria for up to 8 hours; • Long-term addicts may lose ability to maintain normal level of dopamine

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Hallucinogens

psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

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ecstasy

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.

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LSD

a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid; interferes with serotonin

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Marijuana

mild hallucinogen. Main active chemical is THC, which heightens sensitivity to sounds, tastes, smells

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Homeostasis and drugs

If you're cocaine addict, your brain starts to recognize external cues like room, needles, etc. and knows it's about to get big dose of drug. Brain tells body to get head start - lowers HR before you take drugs. Why you need higher dose over time.

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Oral

ingesting something, one of slowest routes because goes through GI tract - half hour

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inhilation

breathing or smoking, because once you inhale goes straight to brain - 10 seconds

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Injection

most direct, intravenous means goes right to vein. Takes effects within seconds. Can be very dangerous

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Transdermal

drug is absorbed through skin, ex. Nicotine patch. Drug in patch has to be pretty potent, released into bloodstream over several hours

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intramuscular

stuck into muscle. Can deliver drugs to your system slowly or quickly. Quick for example is epipen. Or vaccines, slowly.

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Ventral Tegmental Area

a portion of the midbrain that produces dopamine; sends to • Amygdala, Nucleus accumbens (controls motor functions), Prefrontal cortex (focus attention and planning), Hippocampus (memory formation).

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Tolerance

the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect

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substance induced disorders

Disorders, such as intoxication, that can be induced by using psychoactive substances.

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Methadone

activates opiate receptors, but acts more slowly, so it dampens the high. Reduces cravings, eases withdrawal, and can't experience the high because receptors are already filled

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motivational interviewing

a collaborative, person-centered form of guiding to elicit and strengthen motivation for change

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cognative behavioral therapy

Recognize problematic situations and develop more positive thought patterns and coping strategies

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Attention

focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events; limited resource

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Divided attention

doing two things at once you end up switching between tasks rather than doing them simultaneously

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Selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

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Exogenous cues

Things in our environment that we don't have to tell ourselves to try to find, things like bright colors, loud noises

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