Developmental Psych - Unit 3

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Zygote

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107 Terms

1

Zygote

An egg has been fertilized (cell division - 2 week period)

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2

Embryo

Developing organs & nervous system (2nd week to 2nd month)

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3

Teratogens

Environmental agent that can reach the baby and cause harm

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4

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Exposure to alcohol

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5

Fetus

Final stage of prenatal development: brain, bones, muscles (9 weeks - 9 months)

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6

Rooting reflex

Touch the corner of an infants mouth and they will turn their head in that direction

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7

Developmental norms

Universal sequence but not timing

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8

Gross motor skills

Develop during toddlerhood; involves movement of large muscles (kicking ball, walking upstairs)

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9

Fine motor skills

Less developed until school age; involves movement of smaller muscles (writing)

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10

Puberty

Start of adolescence

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11

Primary

Involves in reproduction

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12

Secondary

Not involved in reproduction (body hair)

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13

Menopause

End of women's menstrual cycle

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14

Prefrontal cortex

Responsible for planning, judgement, impulse control (not developed until 20s)

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15

Erik Erikson

Famous for theory of psychosocial development

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16

Attachment

Emotional bond formed between an infant and their caregivers

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17

Mary Ainsworth

Studied differences in attachment

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18

Harry & Margaret Harlow

Did not believe attachment is formed due to nourishment

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19

Diana Baumrind

Identified 4 parenting styles

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20

Permissive Parenting

Low demands, rules don't exist

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21

Neglectful Parenting

Low demands, low affection, not around to model good behavior

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22

Authoritarian Parenting

High demands, strict rule, harsh punishments

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23

Authoritative Parenting

Reasonable expectations, rules, and punishments

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24

Imprinting

Rigid attachment (exp. Jacob Black)

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25

Konrad Lorenz

Studied imprinting in ducks

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26

Temperament

Refers to a persons emotional disposition

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27

Self concept

Understanding of who they are

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28

Self esteem

Falls during adolescence

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29

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross

Believed there were 5 stages to understanding death

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30

Jean Piaget

Believed a child's mind was not a mini version of an adults

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31

Schemas

"Building blocks" of understanding (5 senses)

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32

Assimilation

Interpret new information using existing schemas

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33

Accommodation

When presented with new info, we change our schemas to match it

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34

Sensorimotor

Birth-2yrs experience world through senses and actions

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35

Object permanence

Awareness objects continue to exist when not perceived

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36

Preoperational

2-7yrs symbolic thought (pretend play)

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37

Egocentrism

Inability to understand others point of view

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38

Theory of mind

Sense of what others think/feel

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39

Reversibility

Objects can be changed and returned to original form (water can be frozen, melted, and refrozen)

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40

Conservation

Quantity remains constant despite changes in shape

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41

Formal operational

Understand inconsistencies in others actions/thoughts

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42

Lev Vygotsky

Emphasized the minds growth through interaction with social development

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43

Zone of proximal development

Space between what we can do with or without assistance

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44

Lawrence Kohlberg

Conducted a study on moral development

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45

Conventional

Morals are based on social approval

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46

Pre-conventional

Morals are based on rewards and punishments

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47

Post-conventional

Morals are based on personal definition of justice

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48

Carol Gilligan

Criticized kohlbergs research for not accounting for differences in men and women

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49

Classical conditioning

Type of learning where two or more stimuli are linked

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50

Ivan Pavlov

explored classical conditioning

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51

Unconditioned Response UR

Happen automatically without conditioning

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52

Neutral stimulus NR

Will not produce a response

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53

Conditioned response CR

Produces a response

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54

Higher order conditioning

Neutral stimulus becomes a second conditioned stimulus

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55

Acquisition

Moment where conditioning has happened

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56

Extinction

"Unconditioning"; breaking link between stimuli

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57

Spontaneous recovery

Long break after attempting extinction

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58

Conditioned stimulus CS

Response after learning has taken place

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59

Unconditioned stimulus US

Unconditionally triggers a response (will say ow)

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60

Stimulus Generalization

The greater the similarity, the stronger the response (instead of fear of the dog, fear of all dogs)

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61

Stimulus discrimination

Ability to differentiate between conditioned response and other

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62

Flooding

Person exposed to harmless stimulus until fear developed

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63

systematic desensitization

People are taught relaxation technique

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64

Counter conditioning

Pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one

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65

operant conditioning

Organisms associate their own actions with consequences

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66

Edward Thorndikes law of effect

Rewarded behaviors are more likely to occur

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67

BF Skinner

Influential behaviorism approach

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68

positive reinforcement

Adding a desirable stimulus

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69

negative reinforcement

Removing an unwanted negative stimulus

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70

Fixed ratio schedule

Reinforcement is given after a specific number of responses

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71

Variable ratio schedules

Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

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72

Variable interval schedule

Reinforces a response after a random amount of time

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73

Fixed interval schedules

Reinforces a response after a specific time has elapsed

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74

Positive punishment

Adds an unwanted stimulus

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75

Negative punishment

Removes an enjoyable stimulus

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76

Shaping

Form of operant conditioning where reinforces guide behavior closer to a desired behavior

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77

Superstitious behavior

Proceed desired outcome

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78

Preparedness Biological predisposition

How genetics show likelihood of survival

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79

John Garcia

Challenged the idea that all associations can be learned equally well

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80

Taste aversion

Prepared rats to learn taste aversion from toxic foods

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81

Edward Tolmon

Researched cognitive effects on operant conditioning

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82

Cognitive map

Mental representation of physical environment

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83

Latent learning

Not using knowledge unless you need to

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84

Insight learning

Learning that happens suddenly and abruptly

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85

Fixed

Specific

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86

Variable

Random

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87

Ratio

Number of responses

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88

Interval

Time

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89

Positive

Applies stimulus

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90

Negative

Removes stimulus

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91

Reinforcement

Increases the frequency of desirable behavior

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92

Punishment

Decreases frequency of undesirable behavior

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93

Observational learning

Learning by observing others behavior

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94

Modeling

Imitating an observed behavior

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95

Mirror neurons

Frontal lobe neurons that fire when we perform certain actions

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96

Albert Bandura

Studied observational learning in his BoBo doll experiment; adults beat doll and child would mimic them

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97

Social Learning Theory

People learn from each other through observation, imitation, and modeling

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98

Antisocial modeling

Negative and harmful; numb to what many others consider wrong

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99

Pro social modeling

Positive and helpful; lead to confidence and pro social effects on society

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100

Behavior modification

Attempts to change behavior through various techniques

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