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Difference between Climate change and global warming

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126 Terms

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Difference between Climate change and global warming

Climate change is changes in temperature, precipitation, and the frequency and intensity of storms across the world. Global warming refers specifically to an increase in Earth’s average temperature

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greenhouse gases

water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (C O2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (C H4), and halocarbons(CFC’s)

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greenhouse effect.

The re-warming of the lower atmosphere by the emitting of infrared energy by green house gases,

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Milankovitch cycles

Earth wobbles on its axis, varies in its tilt, and experiences changes in the shape of its orbit in regular long-term cycles, this changes the amount of solar radiation hitting earth changing the earth climate slightly.

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How does snow and ice melt affect lighting being reflected

less-reflective surfaces (bare ground or surface water) are exposed.

This reduces Earth’s albedo, or capacity to reflect light

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carbon tax

  • there are taxed emission of carbon dioxide or the carbon content of fossil fuels.

    • The tax can be charged to producers, utilities, or motor vehicle users.

    • A downside is that these fees are often directly passed along to the customers.

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What is the biggest reason the oceans are rising

Thermal expansion

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Proxy indicators

types of indirect evidence that serve as substitutes, for direct measurements, like Ice cores.

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ocean acidification

As carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere rise, the oceans absorb more CO2.

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mitigation

Addressing the root cause of climate change means pursuing actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions or withdraw these gases from the atmosphere.(Preventative/lessen the severity)

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adaptation

cushioning ourselves from the impacts of climate change(Adaptation to climate change)

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How much solar radiation is absorbed and reflected

70% is absorbed and 30% is reflected

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Aerosols and there effect

Fine liquid or soiled particles in the atmosphere, that have warming and colling effects

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Which holds more carbon the ocean or the atmosphere.

Ocean holds 50 tons more carbon the the atmosphere

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Kyoto protocol

International agreement to reduce six greenhouse gases emissions to below 1990 levels

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What influence climate patterns

Sun, Atmosphere, and oceans

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albedo effect

capacity to reflect light reducing it creates a positive feedback loop

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Fossil fuels

Nonrenewable natural resource, like oil, natural gas, or coal, produced by the decomposition and compression by the matter from ancient life.

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EROI

“Energy returned on investment” The ration determined by the amount of energy put in to how much is put out, higher EROI is better since it means we receive more energy from each unit of energy that we invest.

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Fossil fuels EROI over time

conventional oil and natural gas in the United States declined from roughly 24:1 to about 11:1 by 2010 because it take more energy to extract fossil fuels now.

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Proven recoverable reserve

The amount of a fossil fuel that is technologically and economically feasible to remove under current conditions

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Coal’s purpose

Today, we burn coal largely to generate electricity. Coal is burned and converts water to steam which turns turbines to create electricity.

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Why is Natural gas looked at better then coal and oil

Natural Gas is also used to generate electricity and heat homes. It also emits just half as much carbon dioxide per unit of energy released as coal and one-third less than oil. Some people say it’s the bridge to transition to renewable energy, others say it deepen our reliance on fossil fuels.

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Oil and it’s uses

It’s the most used fossil fuel, and s used as fuel for vehicles, including gasoline for cars, diesel for trucks, and jet fuel for airplanes, and industry and manufacturing uses a lot as well.

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Nonrenewable resource

the total amount of availability on Earth declines as we use them.

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renewable resource

a resource of which there is an endless supply because it can be replenished

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mountaintop removal mining

An economically efficient way of large scale coal mining in which entire mountain tops are blasted away so as to extract the coal. This causes large volume of rock and soil sliding downhill, damaging the surrounding ecosystem.

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Directional Drilling

A new form of drilling for oil that allows drillers to bore down vertically and then curve to drill horizontally, thus enabling them to follow horizontal layered deposits.

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Net Energy

Amount of energy that actually remains (to do real work) after you subtract all the energy needed to get it where it is being used.

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Aerobic

Environment with oxygen.

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Anaerobic

Environment with little or no oxygen.

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Coal

World's most abundant fossil fuel. Organic. High net useful energy yield. After water is squeezed out from plant/swamp matter that has been compressed for years. Lots in the US.

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Oil Sands

Mined or processed deposits of moist sand & clay containing bitumen (think & heavy form of petroleum).

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Oil Shale

Sedimentary rock filled with kerogen (organic matter) that was not buried deeply enough to form oil. Have lower net useful energy yield. Large supplies of heavy oils.

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Nuclear Fission

Splitting apart of atomic nuclei. Reaction that drives the release of nuclear energy in power plants.

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Nuclear Reactors

The facilities within nuclear power plants where fission is controlled & electricity is generated. Uranium-235. Moderator: Slows down neutrons.

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Half-life

Amount of time it takes for one-half of the atom to give off radiation & decay.

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Nuclear Fusion

Forces together the small nuclei of lightweight elements under extremely high temperatures and pressure.

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Biomass Energy

is carbon neutral. Involves burning material derived from living organisms or organisms that have recently died, and it contains chemical energy that originated with sunlight and photosynthesis

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Biofuels

Biomass sources that can be converted into fuels to power automobiles. Two kinds-- ethanol & biodiesel.

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Biodiesel

Produced from vegetable oils (animal fats, grease, cooking oil) being mixed with small amounts of ethanol or methanol.

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Hydroelectric Power / Hydropower

Kinetic energy of moving water is used to turn turbines & generate electricity.

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Passive Solar

Most common way to harness solar energy. Buildings are designed to directly absorb sunlight in the cold winters & keep cool during the hot summers.

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Active Solar

Uses technology more to focus, move & store solar energy.

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Wind Turbines

Convert wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy, by turning a generator.

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Fracking

Process that extracts natural gas or tight oil

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World's Energy

50% coal 20% nuclear energy 20% natural gas

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Solar Power

Electrons moving to produce energy. Only type of energy that doesn't spin a generator.

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Hydrogen Fuel

Less-polluting. The "cleanliness" of hydrogen for the future depends on how we use it today.

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Nuclear Power Advantage/Disadvantage

Clean, good sources of energy. Uranium produces more energy per amount then coal so less needs to be mined Expensive & waste removal is dangerous and the fuel and biproduct and be turned into weapons.

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Coal Advantage/Disadvantage

Abundance of supple, high EROI ratio, good energy source. Pollution, landscape damage, biodiversity damage, acid drainage

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Wind Advantage/Disadvantage

Renewable, unlimited supple of wind, less pollution. Not a good sources of baseload power, threat to birds.

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Solar Advantage/Disadvantage

Renewable, fast growing industry Expensive, low EROI ratio, does not produce enough energy.

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Natural Gas Advantage/Disadvantage

Clean burning. Nonrenewable, hard to extract.

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Crude Oil Advantage/Disadvantage

High EROI ratio. Pollution, low supply

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Health risk of fossil fuels

cancer-causing hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide can evaporate from crude oil, irritate the eyes and throat, and cause asphyxiation.

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Hydropower Advantage/Disadvantage

Clean renewable energy, efficient, highest EROI Blocks natural flow of water areas above dam sites are submerged and those below often are starved of water, uses fossil fuels for constructing and maintenance.

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run-of-river

Hydropower that doesn’t disrupt the flow of the river

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topsoil

Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the crumbly, topmost layer of soil.

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soil

a system consisting of disintegrated rock, organic matter, water, gases, nutrients, and microorganisms.

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slash-and-burn agriculture

a farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land

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Waterlogging

A form of soil degradation that occurs when soil remains under water for prolonged periods.

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Inorganic fertilizers

Fertilizer produced commercially, normally with the use of fossil fuels

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Organic fertilizers

fertilizer composed of organic matter from plants and animals

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Soil degradation

the deterioration in quality and productivity of soil.

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3 ways to make land more vulnerable to erosion

Over cultivating fields, Grazing rangeland with more livestock than it can support, and Clearing forests on steep slopes

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Crop rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.

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Terracing

creating flat platforms in the hillside that provide a level planting surface, which reduces soil runoff from the slope.

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Intercropping

An agricultural method in which two or more crop species are planted in the same field at the same time to promote a synergistic interaction.

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Shelterbelts

rows of trees planted as a windbreak to reduce soil erosion of agricultural land

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Why is tilling bad?

Since tillage fractures the soil, it disrupts soil structure, accelerating surface runoff and soil erosion

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Overgrazing

Destruction of vegetation caused by too many grazing animals consuming the plants in a particular area so they cannot recover

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Salinization

over watering the soil dissolves salts from subsoil layers and when the water evaporates it leaves an abundance of salt on top

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Green Revolution

Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; was the start of industrial agriculter.

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pesticide

A chemical intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops.

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Why is are pesticides getter stronger?

Pesticides don't kill all pest and some survive and then breed producing a stronger more resistant pest and needs stronger chemicals.

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Why is crop diversity important?

Insurance against monoculture fail. If there are genetic variations then one disease will not kill every plant.

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biological control

A method of pest control that involves the use of naturally occurring disease organisms, parasites, or predators to control pests

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Leaching

removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards

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humus

Rich, dark organic material formed by decay of vegetable matter, essential to soil's fertility

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Desertification

the process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture.

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Drip irrigation

the practice of using small pipes that slowly drip water just above ground to conserve water to use for crops

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generalist species

Species with a broad ecological niche. They can live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, and tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. Examples are flies, cockroaches, mice, rats, and human beings.

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specialized species

A species closely fitted to a specific niche and able to tolerate little change in that niche.

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K-selected species

Species that produce a few, often fairly large offspring but invest a great deal of time and energy to ensure that most of those offspring reach reproductive age. (the mother cares for the baby)

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r-selected species

Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period.( the mother doesn't take care of the baby)

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survivorship curve

Graph showing the number of survivors in different age groups for a particular species.

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survivorship curve type 1

low death rates during early and middle life and an increase in death rates among older age groups

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survivorship curve type 2

the death rate is constant over the organism's life span

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survivorship curve type 3

high death rates for the young and lower death rates for survivors

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carrying capacity

The maximum population size of a given organism that a given environment can sustain.

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age structure diagram

graph of the numbers of males and females within different age groups of a population.

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What do age structure diagrams show?

show how a population is distributed among various ages(•Wide base = many young: High reproduction, Rapid population growth

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demographic transition

change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

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Four stages of demographic transition

preindustrial, transitional, industrial, postindustrial

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Physical types of environmental hazers

UV, Natural disasters

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Chemical types of environmental hazers

pesticides, disinfectants, venom

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biological types of environmental hazers

infectious diseases, vectors & pathogens

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Cultural types of environmental hazers

lifestyle, behavior, workplace

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Carcinogens

a substance, organism or agent capable of causing cancer

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