UW Biol 118 Exam 3

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4 functions of blood

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1

4 functions of blood

transport & exchange of nutrients & wastes; thermoregulation; immunity; fluid & pH balance

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2

What get rid of diseased cells?

white blood cells and antibodies

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3

What is 55% of whole blood?

Plasma

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4

Plasma is made up of 92% ____

water

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5

7% of plasma is ____

proteins

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6

What 3 proteins are in plasma?

albumins; globulins; fibrinogen

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7

What plasma protein transports stuff that can't get thru the blood on its own (hydrophobic substances)?

albumin

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8

What plasma protein helps w/ immunity?

gamma globulins

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9

What plasma protein helps with clotting?

fibrinogen

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10

1% of plasma is made up of ____

other solutes

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11

What are the 3 other solutes in plasma?

electrolytes; organic nutrients; organic wastes

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12

What 5 electrolytes are in plasma?

Na+; Cl-; Ca2+; H+; HCO3-

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13

What 3 organic nutrients are in plasma?

amino acids; glucose; fatty acids

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14

What 2 organic wastes are in plasma?

urea; bilirubin

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15

Which plasma protein is most abundant?

albumin

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16

How can albumin transport hydrophobic molecules?

hydrophobic pocket

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17

What 3 things is albumin responsible for transporting?

cholesterol-based hormones; fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K); bilirubin

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18

Why don't doctors take blood from arteries? (3)

blood pressure is high in arteries; veins are easy to see; veins don't carry oxygen to tissue

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19

If you spin down blood in a centrifuge, it will ____. This is called ____.

form layers according to weight; fractionated blood

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20

What are the 3 layers of blood?

plasma; buffy layer (WBCs); RBCs & hemoglobin

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21

What are the formed elements in fractionated blood?

buffy layer & RBC

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22

Why does the RBC layer of fractionated blood sink to the bottom?

RBCs have iron

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23

What does hematocrit mean?

Percent of total blood that's made up of formed elements (basically RBCs)

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24

Why do males have on average have slightly more RBCs than females?

testosterone

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25

99% of the cells in blood are ____

erythrocytes (RBCs)

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26

Hematocrit will ____ w/ dehydration because ____ so the total blood ____ but the RBC # ____.

increase; water is primary component of plasma; decreases; stays the same

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27

3 functions of the biconcave shape of RBCs

stack easily; bend and flew through narrow capillaries; increase SA/V ratio

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28

Do RBCs have organelles?

no

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29

How is ATP produced in RBCs?

glycolysis because they have no organelles

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30

How do RBCs get glucose for glycolysis?

diffusion

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31

____ makes up 33% of the mass of an RBC

hemoglobin

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32

A hemoglobin molec has a ____ structure

quaternary

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33

One hemoglobin has ___ hemes and each heme may carry ___.

4; 1 O2

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34

One hemoglobin has ___ globin proteins and each globin may carry ____.

4; 1 CO2

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35

We call hemoglobin molecules a pigment because it has color, when does this color change?

oxygenated or deoxygenated

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36

What is in the center of a heme?

iron

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37

RBCs are exposed to ____

severe physical stresses

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38

What is the life span of an RBC?

120 days

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39

____ of circulating RBCs replaced each day

1%

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40

____ new RBCs enter circulation each second

3 mil

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41

The RBCs go from the heart to the body to the heart in ____

1 minute

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42

What is erythropoiesis?

making of erythrocytes

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43

3 forms of RBC in the order in which they develop

hemocytoblast; erythroblast; erythrocyte

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44

5 stages of RBC development

stem cell; committed; ribosome synthesis; make hemoglobin; eject nucleus and mitochondria

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45

Regulation of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood: Hypoxemia -> ____ -> increased ____ -> goes to ____ -> increased ____ -> goes to ____.

kidneys; EPO; EPO receptors in bone marrow; RBC production; blood

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46

Regulation of of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is ___ feedback

negative

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47

At a low RBC %, the body produces ____; at a high %, the body produces ____

more EPO; less EPO

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48

Can't stimulate EPO production if ____

kidney fails

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49

____ causes males to have more EPO

testosterone

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50

Regulation of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood: Release of EPO leads to ____ or ____

increased mitotic rate; accelerated maturation

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51

Regulation of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood:

  1. Increased mitotic rate -> ____ -> ____ -> ____.

  2. Accelerated maturation -> ____.

  1. stem cells; erythroblasts; reticulocytes 2. reticulocytes

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52

Main symptom of anemia

fatigue

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53

4 severe symptoms of anemia

fainting; chest pain; angina; heart attack

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54

Who is at risk for developing iron-deficiency anemia? (4)

people with liver problems (alcoholics); vegetarians; old people (less efficient at absorbing iron); women (menstruation)

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55

How does our body regulate plasma iron?

Hepcidin blocks Ferroportin's transport of ion

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56

What is ferroportin?

iron channel

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57

Vitamin C aids ___

absorption of iron

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58

What does hepcidin do?

inhibits iron circulation

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59

What is reticuloendothelia?

type of phagocyte that eats up dead RBCs and recycles their iron

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60

What is transferrin?

Molecule that helps transfer iron through blood

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61

What is pernicious anemia? Who is at risk?

lack of vitamin B12; vegans and old people

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62

Pernicious Anemia: Autoimmune disease damages ____, resulting in ____. Can't absorb ____, used in ____.

gastric lining; gastric atrophy; vitamin B12; DNA synthesis

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63

Pernicious Anemia: Normally, vitamin B12 is bound to the ____ in ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____.

proteins; fish; meat; poultry; eggs; dairy products; fortified cereals; some soy milks.

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64

Pernicious Anemia: Normally, ____ releases B12 from protein. Vitamin B12 combines w/ ____ in intestines so it can be ____. Intrinsic factor production declines in ____.

stomach; intrinsic factor; older adults

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65

Does your hematocrit increase w/ elevation? Why?

Yes so can carry more oxygen where air is so thin

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66

If hematocrit gets too high, blood gets ____ and you might get ____

thick; clots

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67

One way to blood dope

re-infusing your own blood

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68

Why can't you take synthetic EPO to bulk up?

Fast-twitch muscles use glycolysis which doesn't need oxygen

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69

Why does blood viscosity increase w/ an increased hematocrit?

lots of RBCs = thicker blood

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70

What happens w/ high blood viscosity?

thrombi's and emboli

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71

What happens w/ low blood viscosity?

poor oxygen transport

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72

What is normal blood viscosity?

5 mPas

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73

What does polycythaemia?

lots of cells

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74

Bruise changes color over time:

  1. RBCs ____ blood vessel

  2. Bluish: ____

  3. RBCs are ____

  4. Greenish: ____

  5. Yellow/Orange: ____ is toxic and removed by ____ or ____

  6. Hydrophobic bilirubin is transported by ____

  1. leak out of; low O2; phagocytized; biliverdin; bilirubin; liver; kidney; albumins

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75

What is a byproduct of heme breakdown?

biliverdin

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76

What is bilirubin?

organic yellow pigment

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77

What is hemolysis?

breakdown of RBCs

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78

Why is pee yellow?

bilirubin

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79

Starting regular aerobic exercise will ___ body's production of EPO

increase

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80

Injections of EPO will ____ body's production of EPO

not increase

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81

What is jaundice?

excess bilirubin in blood

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82

Symptom of jaundice

yellowing of skin and eyes

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83

4 causes of jaundice

liver damage; bile duct blockage; premature birth/breakdown of fetal hemoglobin; sickle-cell anemia

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84

Jaundice happens a lot in babies (esp premies) because they have ___ and if ____, get jaundice

diff hemoglobin; not broken down right

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85

Many more ____ in blood than ____

RBCs; WBCs

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86

UV light is used in treatment of infants because UV ____ in blood vessels in skin into water soluble ____ & it's not toxic.

converts bilirubin; lumirubin

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87

In infants, mild exposure to jaundice cause ____ and ____. Chronic bilirubin deposition in an infant brain causes ____, ____ and ____.

lethargy; poor feeding; hearing loss; cerebral palsy; mental retardation

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88

What is the network/mesh-like structure that helps w/ clotting and what is formed from?

fibrin; fibrinogen

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89

In non-mammalian vertebrates, platelets are cells called ____

thrombocytes

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90

In mammalian vertebrates, platelets are ____

parts of cells

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91

Megakaryocytes are giant cells w/ ____. The edges of megakaryocyte ____ to form ____ called ____.

multiple copies of DNA in nucleus; break off; cell fragments; platelets

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92

Megakaryocytes develop large ____ for ____, prior to ____.

rough ER; enzyme synthesis; platelet building

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93

thrombopoiesis is the ____

process of making platelets

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94

Homocytoblast (stem cells) -> ____ -> ____ -> ____

megakaryoblast; megakaryocyte; platelets

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95

How long is the lifespan of a platelet?

9-12 days

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96

Platelets have to be ____ before clotting

activated

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97

Clotting of blood is called ____

hemostasis

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98

Overall hemostasis is ____ feedback but there are ____ feedback loops within.

negative; positive

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99

Blood vessel injury leads to ____ lead to ____ leads to ____

positive feedback loops; blood clot formation; vessel repair

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100

What is the opposite of hemostasis?

hemorrhaging

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