BIO I Q4 EXAM

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Asexual reproduction______ involve the fusion of gametes.

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Biology

10th

287 Terms

1

Asexual reproduction______ involve the fusion of gametes.

does not

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2

The heart is an example of a ____ made up or different types of tissues.

Organ

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3

cells are specialized to perform _____ functions.

different

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4

______ cells make up most of an organisms body tissues and organs.

somatic

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5

differences in the final stages of gametogenisis are based upon the ________ of the parent organism.

gender

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6

Mendel used _____ plants in his genetic studies because they reproduce quickly.

pea

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7

allele pairs separate independently of each other during __________.

Meiosis

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8

genetic variation is ____ advantage of sexual reproduction that is produced within a species.

major

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9

the __________were a century of great advances in science and intellectual thought.

1700s

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10

French zoologist georges cuvier theorized powerful natural disasters caused species to ______________.

become extinct

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11

The two types of Galapagos _____ studied by Darwin were saddle-backed and domed types.

tortoises

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12

for many organisms,having many offspring _________ the chance of species survival.

increases

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13

successful individuals within a population are ______ likely to survive and produce more offspring.

more

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14

In nature, species populations change and evolve in response to the __________.

environment

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15

once isolated, _________ and genetic drift can lead to species.

mutation

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16

in __________, the survival of a species is dependent on the survival of another species.

coevolution

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17

different traits become _________ in natural selection as the environment changes.

adventageous

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18

______ are the simplest forms of plants.

algae

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19

dispersing seeds and ____ are the two functions of animals and insects in assisting plants in reproduction.

pollination

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20

flowering plants that do not produce woody stems are called ________.

herbaceous

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21

plants often possess chemical compounds that have ________ properties.

medicinal

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22

________ can grow in very harsh environments that other plants are unable to grow in.

Mosses

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23

________ are groups of cells working together to perform a similar function.

Tissues

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24

______ are formed by organs grouped together with other organs to carry out necessary functions.

organ system

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25

For each somatic cell, each species has a characteristic number of _____________.

chromosomes

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26

at the end of meiosis II, four_______ cells are produced.

haploid

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27

The name given to mendel's second law of genetics is the "Law of ____________ assortment."

Independent

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28

_____________ is a central theme in all fields of biology.

evolution

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29

__________ published a book on evolution called the "On the origin of species by means of Natural Selection.

Darwin

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30

Fossil evidence & _______________ processes supported darwin's belief that the earth was older than 6,000 years.

geological

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31

genetic variation in populations results in more species' members being able to survive a changing ____________.

environment

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32

the two main processes of genetic_________ are the bottleneck effect and the founder effect.

drift

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33

the two types of sexual____________ are intrasexual selection and intersexual selection.

selection

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34

reproductive________ results in a species population losing the ability to successfully mate or produce offspring.

isolation

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35

evolution is the mechanism by which a species response to ________changes.

environmental

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36

sexual____ increases mating success within a species.

selection

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37

______ provided humans with a reliable food source that supported rapidly growing populations.

agriculture

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38

Plants have a ____________ system that allows them to grow taller while still getting water & nutrients.

vascular

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39

The scientific definition of a fruit is that it is the mature _________ of a flower.

ovary

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40

The process by which plants produce their own food is called_______________.

photosynthesis

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41

Somatic Cells

cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes

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42

Gamete

sex cell; an egg or a sperm cell

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43

Fertilization

fusion of an egg and sperm cell

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44

Genetics

study of the heredity patterns and variation of organisms

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45

What are the two major groups of cells that make up organisms?

somatic and germ clls

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46

For each somatic cell, what does each species have a characteristic number of?

chromosomes

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47

How many chromosomes do humans have?

46

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48

How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?

23

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49

Which type of cells make up most of an organism's body tissues and organs?

somatic cells

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50

Which two types of gametes make up the germ cells of an organism?

egg and sperm

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51

What two characteristics do homologous chromosomes have in common?

length & general apperance

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52

What letters are given to the 23rd sex chromosome in the human genome?

X & Y

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53

Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of what?

gametes(sperm & egg)

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54

Which type of body cells are diploid?

somatic

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55

Which type of body cells are haploid?

gametes

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56

What happens to the nucleus during the process of meiosis?

divides & makes four haploid cells

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57

In meiosis, how many phases are there to each round of cell division?

4

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58

Which type of chromosome are divided in meiosis I?

homologous chromosome

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59

Which type of chromosome are divided in meiosis II?

sister chromatid

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60

What type and number of cells are produced in meiosis I?

two cells with 23 duplicated chromosomes

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61

Is DNA duplicated during meiosis I?

NO

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62

What type of cells are produced at the end of meiosis II?

4 haploid cells

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63

Differences in the final stages of gametogenesis are based upon what?

gender of the parent

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64

Which type of cell contains the DNA of the male gamete?

sperm cell

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65

Which cell organelle provides sperm cells with the energy needed for the cell's survival and movement?

mitochondria

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66

Which type of cell contains the DNA of the female gamete?

egg cell

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67

For mammals, when does egg formation begin inside the female body?

before birth inside the embryo

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68

What term is given to distinguish characteristics that are inherited?

traits

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69

Who is given credit for establishing the study of genetics as a modern science?

Gregor Mendel

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70

What was Mendel's profession?

austrian monk

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71

What type of plants did Mendel use in his genetic studies?

pea plants

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72

Why use pea plants?

reproduced quickly & easily controlled

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73

How was Mendel able to control pollination of pea plants to control genetic outcomes?

removing male parts

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74

Seven characteristics of pea plants that Mendel monitored?

Pea shape & color, Pod shape & color, plant height, flower color, & flower position

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75

What did Mendel discover about traits that were not shown or expressed in offspring?

inherited as discrete units

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76

What type of mathematics did Mendel use to evaluate genetic crosses in pea plants?

ratios

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77

What is another name for Mendel's first law?

Law of Segregation

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78

Gene

specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein

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79

Allele

any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome

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80

Genotype

collection of all of an organisms within a single species or among different species

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81

Phenotype

collection of all of an organism's physical characteristics

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82

Dominant

allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism's genotype

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83

Recessive

allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism's genotype

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84

Probability

likelihood that a particular event will happen

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85

What term is given to the specific location of genes on a chromosome?

locus

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86

What are alternative forms of a gene called?

allele

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87

How many alleles do cells have for each gene?

2

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88

Which type of allele is expressed when 2 different alleles or 2 dominant alleles are present on a chromosome?

dominant

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89

Which type of allele is expressed when 2 copies of a recessive allele are present on a chromosome?

recessive

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90

What is commonly done by scientists while studying genetics?

focusing on a single trait

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91

Besides genotype, what also interacts with genes and affects their expression?

phenotype

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92

What was the profession of R.C, Punnett?

poultry geneticist

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93

What type of system did Punnett develop for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a genetic cross?

punnett square

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94

By counting the number of squares in a genetic combination, what can be figured concerning genotypes?

ratio

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95

What process restores the diploid number in offspring?

fertilization

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96

List the three types of monohybrid crosses?

homoXhomo; heterXheter; heterXhomo

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97

What type of phenotype must an organism have in order for a testcross to be necessary?

recessive

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98

What was the phenotypic ration that Gregor Mendel consistently obtained in the second generation of breeding?

9:3:3:1

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99

What name is given to Medndel's second law of genetics?

law of independent assortment

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100

According to the law of independent assortment, how do allele pairs separate during meiosis?

independently

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