Pre-Ap Psychology Fall Final Review

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Behavioral Perspective

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Behavioral Perspective

  • John Watson and B.F Skinner

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  • Study only observable behavior and explain behavior through learning principles

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  • Leaned through rewards and punishments

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Biological Perspective

  • Behavior/Behavior disorders are seen as the result of physical processes, especially those relating to the brain and to hormones and other chemicals

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  • Concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behaviors and mental state

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Cognitive Perspective

  • Mental processes underlying judgement, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human thought or cognition

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  • How individuals interpret their experience

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Evolutionary Perspective

  • Emphasizes the inherited adaptive aspects of behavior and mental processes

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Humanistic Perspective

Behavior is controlled by the decisions that people make about their lives based on their perceptions of the world; view in which personality develops through and actualizing tendency that unfolds in accordance with each person's unique perceptions of the world

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Psychodynamic Perspective

  • Sigmund Freud

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  • Behavior is controlled by the unconscious mental processes in determining human thought, feelings, and behavior

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Who established the first psychology lab?

Wilhelm Wundt

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Explain the concept of standard deviation

  • A measure of variability that is the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set

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  • The "average of the average"

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  • A lower standard deviation = more consistent results

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What are descriptive statistics?

  • Numbers that summarize a set of research data

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  • Describes a data set numerically

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What are inferential statistics?

A set of procedures that provides a measure of how likely it is that research results came about by chance

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Naturalistic Observation

The process if watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural environment (ie. observing children's interactions on a playground)

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Survey

Research method that involves giving people questionnaires or special interviews designed to obtain descriptions of their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions

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Case Studies

Research method involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation

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Double-Blind Design

Research design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group which guards bias

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Correlation Study

Research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, to test predictions, to evaluates theories and to suggest new hypotheses

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What are the correlation coefficients associated with positive correlation, negative correlation and no correlation?

Positive correlation = 0 to +1

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Negative correlation = 0 to -1

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No correlation = 0

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Statistical significance

  • Describes research results when the outcome of a statistical test indicates that the probability of those results occurring by a chance is small

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  • More likely to find statistical significance with a large sample size

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Sympathetic Nervous System

  • The subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that usually prepares the organism for vigorous activity

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  • Mobilizes its energy in stressful situations & arousal

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

  • The subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that typically influences activity related to the protection, nourishment, and growth of the body

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  • Conserves energy and calms the body

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Axon

A fiber that carries signals from the body of a neuron out to where communication occurs with other neurons

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Dendrite

A neuron fiber that receives signals from the axons of other neurons and carries those signals to the cell body

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Synapse

The tiny gap between neurons across which they communicate

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Refractory Period

  • A short rest period between action potentials

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  • Neurons needs to take a break in between firing action potentials to become re-polarized

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Thalamus

  • A forebrain structure that relays signals from most sense organs to higher levels in the brain and plays an important role in processing and making sense out of this information

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  • "Relay Station"

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Which human sense does not pass through the thalamus?

Olfactory (Smell)

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What is the primary function of the endocrine system?

  • Cells that form organs called glands and that communicate with one another by secreting chemicals called hormones into the bloodstream

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  • Regulates functions ranging from stress responses to physical growth

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Somantic Nervous System

  • The subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that transmits information from the senses to the central nervous system and carries signals from the central nervous system to the muscles

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Central Nervous System

The parts of the nervous system encased in bone, including the brain and the spinal cord

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Corpus Callosum

A massive bundle of fibers that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres and allows them to communicate with each other

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Describe the common responses of split brain patients when taking visual tests

Left hemisphere more verbal

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Right hemisphere excels in visual perception and emotion

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.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  • Exposes the brain to a magnetic field and measures radio frequency waves

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  • Forms a detailed structural picture of the brain

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Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

  • Positions and photons are emissions from radioactive substances

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  • Glucose in brain is marked with a radioactive substance. Then radiation detectors identified especially active brain areas

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Explain the functions of the two hemispheres of the brain and how they control the rest of the body

  • Hemispheres control sensations and motor movements from the opposite side of the body

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  • Right Hemisphere: More artistic and creative side of the brain

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  • Left Hemisphere: More academic and logical side of the brain

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Cerebellum

  • The part of the hindbrain whose main functions include controlling finely coordinated movements and storing memories about movement, but which may also be involved in impulse control, emotion, and language

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  • Balance and coordination

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Hippocampus

A structure in the forebrain associated with the formation of new memories

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Sensory Cortex

The parts of the cerebral cortex that receive stimulus information from the senses

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Motor Cortex

The part of the cerebral cortex whose neurons control voluntary movements in specific parts of the body

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What ear structure is responsible for transduction?

Cochlea

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Sensory Adaptation

The process through which responsiveness to an unchanging stimulus decreases over time

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Describe the route of sensory information in hearing

Pinna funnels sound > eardrum > bones of inner ear (hammer, anvil, & stirrup) > oval window to cochlea > transduction > temporal lobe

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Describe the route of sensory information in vision

Cornea > Pupil > Lens > Fovea & Photoreceptors > Bipolar Cells > Ganglion Cells > Optic Nerve > Optic Chiasm > Thalamus > Occipital Lobe

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Gate Control Theory

A theory suggesting that a functional 'gate' in the spinal cord can either let pain impulses travel upward to the brain or block their progress

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Example: Josh fell off the jungle gym and scraped his arm. At first he cried out in pain, but when he rubbed his knee the pain went away

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Perception

The process through which people take raw sensations from the environment and interpret them, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world, so that the sensations become meaningful experiences

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Sensation

Messages from the senses that make up raw information that affects many kinds of behavior and mental processes

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Absolute Threshold

The minimum amount of stimulus energy that can be detected 50% of the time

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Subliminal Stimuli

Stimuli that are too weak or brief to be perceived

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Supraliminal Stimuli

Stimuli that are strong enough to be consistently perceived

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Response Criterion

The internal rule a person uses to decide whether or not to report a stimulus.

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Difference Threshold

The smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy

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Top Down Processing

Aspects of recognition that are guided by higher-level cognitive processes and psychological factors such as expectations

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Bottom Up Processing

Aspects of recognition that depend first on the information about the stimulus that comes to the brain from the sensory receptors

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Inattentional Blindness

When the spotlight of your attention is voluntarily or involuntarily focused on one part of the

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environment, you may ignore of be "blind" to stimuli occurring in other parts. (ie. Moonwalking Bear)

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Change Blindness

Researchers found that 40 percent of people focused on repeating a list of challenging words failed to notice a change in the person speaking

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Learning

  • The modification through experience of pre-existing behavior and understanding

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  • Relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to experience

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Spontaneous Recovery

The reappearance of the conditioned response after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli

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Reconditioning

The quick relearning of a conditioned response following extinction

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Classical Conditioning

A procedure in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until the neutral stimulus alone comes to elicit a similar response

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Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

  • A stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning

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  • Example: Meat powder / food

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Unconditioned Response (UCR)

  • The automatic or unlearned reaction to a stimulus

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  • Example: Salivate to food

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Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

  • The originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response

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  • Example: Bell

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Conditioned Response (CR)

  • The response that the conditioned stimulus elicits

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  • Example: Salivate to bell

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Learned Helplessness

Learning that responses do not affect consequences, resulting in failure to try to exert control over the environment

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Example: George keeps failing his bio class. He has tried to take several different types of study methods, but nothing seems to help. When his teacher recommends a new study idea, George doesn't even bother to go try it

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Observational Learning

Learning how to perform new behaviors by watching others

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Operant

A response that has some effect on the world

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Fixed Interval (FI)

A partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward

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Fixed Ratio (FR)

A partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement following a fixed number of responses Example: Car salesmen receive a $1000 bonus for every twenty cars they sell

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Variable Interval (VI)

  • A partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response after varying periods of time

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  • Example: In Econ 101 the professor takes attendance on the average every 5 to 10 days, and students who are present receive extra points

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Variable Ratio (VR)

  • A partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement after a varying number of responses

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