A&P exam 2

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epicondyle surface marking

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1

epicondyle surface marking

attachment points bove condyle for ligaments and tendons

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2

angular extension movement

increasing angle between bones

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3

muscle tone

muscles are always in state of mild contraction stabilizes joints

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4

angular movement

changing the angle between bones

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5

gliding movement

simplest form of movement

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6

angular flexion movement

decreasing angle between two bones

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7

menisci

wedges of fibrocartilage between bones provides cushioning in weight-bearing areas

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8

tendon

band of CT binding bone to muscle

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9

ligament

band of CT binding bone to bone

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10

synovial joint (components)

joint cavity more movement hyaline cartilage articular capsule synovial fluid ligaments

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11

synchondrosis joint

cartilage that exists between ribs hyaline cartilage cartilaginous joint

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12

cartilaginous joint

cartilage no joint cavity

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13

gomphosis joint

fibrous joint peg and socket joint

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14

syndesmoses joint

fibrous joint amphiarthosis joint bones connected by ligament

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15

suture joint

type of fibrous joint lines in skull

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16

fibrous joint

fibrous CT no joint cavity probably a synarthrosis joint

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17

synarthrosis joint

joint with no movement skull bones

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18

joint definition

point of contact between bones or between bones and cartilage

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19

angular adduction movement

moving bone towards midline

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20

endochonral ossification

  • begins with a hyaline cartilage template close to shape of bone - blood vessels accumulate in center

  • -osteoblasts form bone collar around outer diaphysis - bone collar moves deeper and secretes matrix (center of ossification) - same process as intramembranous (spreads to each epiphysis) - blood vessels arrive at epiphysis (secondary center of ossification) - ends of bone and epiphysial plates remain hyaline cartilage

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21

angular abduction movement

moving bone away from midline

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22

angular circumduction movement

distal end of bone moves in circle around stationary proximal end

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23

angular hyperextension movement

overextension from anatomical boundaries

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24

spine surface marking

sharp extension for attachment of ligaments and tendons

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25

os coxae components

illium pubis ischium

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26

fissure surface marking

space between two parts of the same bone for blood vessels and nerves

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27

pelvic girdle function

attaches lower extremities to appendicular skeleton forms pelvis from 2 os coxae and sacrum

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28

joint bursitis

inflammation of bursae due to trauma

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29

joint dislocation

displacement of bones at joint damages connective mechanisms

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30

joint sprain

forceful twisting of joint damages attachment points

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31

ball-and-socket synovial joint

head and socket triaxial

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32

saddle synovial joint

two saddles laying on top of one another diaxial

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33

condyloid synovial joint

condyle and cavity diaxial

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34

pivot synovial joint

rounded portion bound to ring of another joint uniaxial

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35

hinge synovial joint

concave and coven bones uniaxial capable of only flexion and extension

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36

gliding synovial joint

planar joint bones move on no axis

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37

opposition movement

special movement touching thumbs to other digits

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38

pectoral girdle function

attaches upper extremities to axial skeleton includes clavicle and scapula

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39

rotational movement

movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis

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40

medial rotation

rotating a bone towards the middle

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41

special movements

occur only at specific joints

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42

lateral rotation

rotating a bone towards the outside

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43

inversion

special movement sole of foot turns toward ankle

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44

eversion

special movement sole of foot turns outward

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45

depression

special movement lowering mandible or shoulders

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46

pronation

special movement elbows bent

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47

elevation

special movement lifting shoulders

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48

supination

special movement elbows bent

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49

retraction

special movement mandible or clavicle pull back

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50

protraction

special movement mandible or clavicle push forward

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51

Line surface marking

narrow

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52

crest surface marking

deep ridge for attachment of ligaments and tendons

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53

trochanter surface marking

bumps on femur for attachment of ligaments and tendons

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54

diarthrosis joint

freely moveable joint

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55

tuberosity surface marking

larger rounded area for attachment of ligaments and tendons

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56

fetal fontanels

soft spots in between incomplete skull bones at birth

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57

articular capsule (components)

fibrocapsule extension of periosteum of bones dense irregular CT synovial membrane areolar CT lines cavity secretes synovial fluid

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58

amphiartrosis joint

slightly moveable joint

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59

bursae

articular capsule that cushions and reduces friction

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60

gouty arthritis

accumulation of sodium urate salts in soft tissue of joint

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61

tendon sheath

wrapping of articular capsule around tendon reduces friction

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62

rheumatoid arthritis

bilateral autoimmune disease attacks synovial membranes

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63

osteoarthritis

unilateral wear and tear accumulates over time

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64

joint tendonitis

inflammation of tendon sheath due to overuse

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65

tubercle surface marking

small rounded area for attachment of ligaments and tendons

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66

facet surface marking

smooth

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67

head surface marking

large articulated portion atop of a constricted portion (neck)

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68

condyle surface marking

rounded extension used for articulation

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69

fossa surface marking

large depression that only houses muscle

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70

groove surface marking

depression that houses various components aka sulcus

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71

paranasal sinus function (3)

lighten skull warm and humidify air for lung use gives voice its tonal quality through sound resonation

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72

sinus surface marking

air-filled space

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73

meatus surface marking

tunnel-like tube nothing passes through

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74

arthritis

inflammation of joint

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75

foramen surface marking

hole for various components such as blood vessels

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76

intramembranous ossification

  • fibrous sheets to bone - mesenthyme tissue accumulates osteoblasts (center of ossification) - osteoblasts secret matrix - osteoblasts die when matrix hardens around them - spaces filled with blood vessels - mesenchymal cells become periosteum - forms spongy bone which may be remodeled to compact bone

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77

hydroxyapatites

  • mineral salt - majority of bone mass

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78

caniculi

  • connects lacunae - side streets

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79

osteocyte

  • cell in compact bone CT

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80

lacunae

house for cell

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81

volkman's canals

connect rings to central canal - perforated canal

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82

haversion canal

  • large opening - holds blood vessels and nerves

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83

lamellae

  • each concentric ring - made of bone matrix

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84

osteon

functional unti of compact bone - full ring

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85

irregular bone

does not fit into any category

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86

flat bone

  • relatively flat and thin - compact outside - spongy inside

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87

sesamoid bone

bone forms w/in tendon (patella)

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88

short bone

wider than long

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89

spongy bone CT

  • plates of bone (trabeculae) - red marrow in cavities - produces all blood cells

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90

compact bone CT

  • arranged in haversion system - rings of bone surrounding a canal

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91

osteogenic layer of long bone membrane

  • inner layer - osteoblasts (build up) - osteoclasts (consume)

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92

fibrous layer of membrane in long bone

outer layer of dense irregular CT

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93

membranes of long bone

  • periostea - covers outside of bone - fibrous and osteogenic layer

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94

epiphysial line/plate

-border of diaphysis and epiphysis - plate = before puberty - line = plate shrinks during puberty

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95

epiphysis of long bone

  • end of long bone - spongy bone with layer of compact bone surrounding - hyaline cartilage lines ends

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96

diaphysis of long bone

-shaft of compact bone - hollow cavity (marrow cavity) - sheds weight - stores yellow marrow (adipose tissue)

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97

long bones

  • longer than wide - all bones of limbs

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98

appendicular skeleton

  • everything else that attaches to axial skeleton - locomotion

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99

axial skeleton

  • axel of body - skull

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100

interstitial cartilage growth

  • chondrocytes internally divide and secrete matrix

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