Cytology

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Cell

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232 Terms

1

Cell

basic unit of life

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Organelles

specialized structures

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Nucleus

contains genetic material

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Cytoplasm

living material

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Plasma membrane

encloses the cytoplasm and nucleus

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Functions of the Cell (CSCR)

1. Cell metabolism and energy use. 2. Synthesis of molecules. 3. Communication. 4. Reproduction and inheritance.

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Cell Membrane

Outer boundary of the cell

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Cell Membrane

Determines what enters and leaves the cell

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Extracellular

substances outside the cell

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Intracellular

substances inside the cell

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Fluid-Mosaic Model

arrangement of molecules in the cell membrane

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Selectively permeable

allows some substances to pass into or out of the cells

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Diffusion

Movement of a solute from an area of higher to lower concentration gradient

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Concentration gradient

difference in the concentration of a solute in a solvent minus the concentration of the solute at another point

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Leak channels

allow ions to pass through

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Gated channels

limit the movement of ions across the membrane

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Osmosis

Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

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Osmotic pressure

force required to prevent movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane

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Hypotonic

lower concentration

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Isotonic

same concentration

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Hypertonic

higher concentration

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Lysis

when cells swell, then ruptures

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Crenation

cell shrinking

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Carrier-mediated transport

movement of a substance across a membrane by means of a carrier molecule

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Facilitated diffusion

moves substances from a higher to lower concentration; does not require ATP

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Active transport

moves substances from a lower to higher concentration; requires ATP

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Cystic fibrosis

genetic disorder that affects the active transport of Cl- into cells

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Secondary active transport

moving concentration gradient to move another substance

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Secondary active transport: Cotransport

same direction

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Secondary active transport: Countertransport

opposite direction

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Endocytosis

movement of materials into cells by formation of vesicles

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Phagocytosis

cell eating; solid particles are ingested

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Pinocytosis

cell drinking; smaller vesicles are formed and contains liquid

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Exocytosis

secretion of materials from cells

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35

Nuclear envelope

two-layered membrane that bounds the nucleus

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Nuclear pores

where materials can can pass into or out the nucleus

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Chromatin

loosely coiled chromosomes

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Nucleoli

consists of ribosomal RNA and proteins

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Ribosomes

Site of protein synthesis

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

Forms tubules/sacs throughout the cell

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Rough E.R.

protein synthesis and modification; contains ribosomes

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Smooth E.R.

lipid synthesis, detoxification, and Ca storage

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Golgi Apparatus

Modifies, packages, and distributes lipids and proteins

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Secretory vesicles

Transports and stores materials within cells

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Lysosomes

Membrane bound sacs containing hydrolytic enzymes

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Peroxisomes

Enzymes that digest fatty acids and amino acids

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Peroxisomes

Enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide

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Proteasomes

Not bound by membranes

Digest selected proteins

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Mitochondria

Major site of ATP production

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Cytoskeleton

Holds organelles in place; enables the cell to change shape

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Microtubules

support the cytoplasm; assist in cell division

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Microfilaments

involved in cell movement

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Intermediate filaments

provide mechanical support

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Centrosome

where microtubule formation occurs

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Centrioles

specialized zone of the cytoplasm

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Spindle fibers

involved in separation of chromosome during mitosis

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Cilia

moves substances over the surface

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Flagella

propel sperm cells

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Microvilli

increase the surface area of cells; aids in absorption

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Gene

sequence of nucleotides

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Transcription

making a copy of a gene

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Messenger RNA (mRNA)

the copy itself (Gene)

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Codons

groups of three nucleotides

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Translation

converting that copied information into a protein

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Translation RNA (tRNA)

carry the amino acids

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Anti-codon

series of three nucleotides of tRNA

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Nucleotide Pairs: Cytosine

Guanine

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Nucleotide Pairs:Thymine

Adenine

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Nucleotide Pairs:Uracil

AdenineUAA

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UAA

stop codon

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Interphase

non-dividing phase

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Cell Division

formation of daughter cells from a single parent cell

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46 Chromosomes

diploid no. of chromosomes

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2 X Chromosome

Female

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X + Y Chromosome

Male

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Prophase

chromatin condenses

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Metaphase

chromosomes align at the center

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Anaphase

chromatids separate at the centromere and migrate to opposite poles

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Telophase

chromosomes unravel to become chromatin

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Differentiation

Cells develop specialized structures and functions

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Apoptosis

Programmed cell death

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Cellular Aspects of Aging

  1. Cellular clock. 2. Death genes. 3. DNA damage. 4. Free radicals. 5. Mitochondrial damage.

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CELLS

Are the structural units of all living things, from one-celled organisms such as amoebas to complex multicellular organisms such as humans, animals, and plants.

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4 concepts of the cell theory

· A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.

· The activity of an organism depends on the collective activities of its cells.

· According to the principle of complementarity, the activities of cells are dictated by their structure (anatomy), which determines function (physiology).

· Continuity of life has a cellular basis.

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The Nucleus

It is the “headquarters,” or the control center of all cells.

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3 main regions or parts of cell

a nucleus, a plasma membrane, and the cytoplasm

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Nuclear envelope

allows some but not all substances to pass through it, but substances pass through it much more freely than elsewhere because of its relatively large pores

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Nuclear membrane

encloses a jellylike fluid called nucleoplasm in which other nuclear elements are suspended

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Nucleoli

The nucleus contains one or more small, dark staining, essentially round bodies called

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90

Chromatin

It is formed when a cell is not dividing, its DNA is carefully wound around proteins called histones to form a loose network of “beads on a string”.

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Plasma Membrane

It is a fragile, transparent barrier that contains the cell contents and separates them from the surrounding environment.

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Plasma Membrane

consists of two phospholipid (fat) layers arranged “tail to tail,” with cholesterol and floating proteins scattered among them.

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Fluid Mosaic Model

The proteins, some of which are free to move and bob in the lipid layer, form a constantly changing pattern or mosaic, hence the name of the model that describes the plasma membrane.

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Glycoproteins

_________ in the glycocalyx act as an adhesive or cellular glue.

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Cells are bound together in three ways

· Glycoproteins in the glycocalyx act as an adhesive or cellular glue.

· Wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells fit together in a tongue-and-groove fashion.

· Special cell membrane junctions are formed. These junctions vary structurally depending on their roles.

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96

Tight junctions

are impermeable junctions that encircle the cells and bind them together into leakproof sheets.

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Desmosomes

Are anchoring junctions scattered like rivets along the sides of adjacent cells.

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Gap Junctions

communicating junctions. These junctions are commonly found in the heart and between embryonic cells.

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99

Cytoplasm

is the cellular material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane. It is the site of most cellular activities, it is the “factory floor” of the cell.

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100

Cytosol

Is semi-transparent fluid that suspends the other elements. Dissolved in the cytosol, which is largely water, are nutrients and a variety of other solutes

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