Skills First Aid/CPR realness

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Nursing

112 Terms

1

A dressing

is a wound covering used to stop bleeding. It helps prevent infection. A dressing can be a gauze pad or any other clean piece of cloth or even a gloved hand. Leave all dressings on as you add more.

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A Person with a Mouth Injury

may have broken, loose, or knocked-out teeth. This can cause a choking hazard

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A seizure

is an abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Most seizures stop within a few minutes. Epilepsy often causes seizures. Not all seizures are due to epilepsy. Seizures happen when the heart suddenly stops beating. Seizures can also be caused by: Head injury, Low Blood Sugar, Heat-related injury, poisons

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Action for a Choking Adult who stops responding

  1. Check if they need CPR. If so, give it

  2. After each set of 30 compression, open airway. If you see an object in the mouth, take it out

  3. Continue CPR until they speak, move, or breathe, or until someone with more advanced training takes over

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Action for applying a bandage

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Get the first aid kit and wear PPE

  2. Use direct pressure, gauze pads/dressings if available, to stop any bleeding

  3. Apply the bandage over the dressings

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Action for Assembling and Using an Inhaler

  1. Shake the medicine

  2. Put medicine canister into mouthpiece

  3. Remove cap from mouthpiece

  4. Attach a spacer if there is one available

  5. Tilt the person's head back slightly and have them breathe out slowly

  6. Put inhaler or spacer in their mouth

  7. Push down the medicine canister. Have the person breathe out slowly

  8. Have them hold their breath for 10 seconds and breathe out slowly

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Action for giving First Aid on someone with a possible Broken Bone or Sprain

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE

  2. Cover any open wound with a clean dressing

  3. Place a plastic bag filled with ice and water on the injured area with a towel between the ice bag and the skin for up to 20 minutes

  4. Call or have someone call 911 if:

  • There is a large open wound

  • The injured part is abnormally bent

  • You're not sure what to do

  1. If an injured body part hurts, the person should avoid using it until checked by a healthcare provider

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Action for Giving First Aid to a Person with an Injury from a Puncturing or Penetrating Object

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Get the first aid kit. Wear PPE

  2. Call or have someone call 911

  3. Stop any bleeding you can see

  4. Try to keep the injured person from moving

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Action for Helping a choking Adult

  1. Ask "Are you choking?" If they nod yes help them

  2. Get behind them (Wrap arms around them)

  3. Make a fist with 1 hand

  4. Put thumb side of your fist slightly above belly button and well below the breastbone

  5. Grasp the fist with your other hand (give quick upward thrusts to the abdomen)

  6. Give thrusts until object is forced out, they can't breath, cough, or talk, or become unresponsive

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Action for Helping a Choking Large Person or Pregnant Women

Give thrusts on the chest not abdomen, Put your arms under the armpits and your hands on lower half of breastbone, Pull straight back to give chest thrusts

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Action for helping someone who is having a shock

  1. Make sure the scene is safe

  2. Call or have someone call 911 and get the first aid kit and AED

  3. Help the person lie on their back

  4. Cover the person in shock to keep them warm

  5. See if they need CPR. If they do, give CPR. If you don't know how give Hands-Only CPR

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Action for Making and Using a Tourniquet

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Wear PPE

  2. Fold a cloth or bandage so that it's long and at least 1 inch wide

  3. Wrap the bandage 2 inches above the injury, if possible

  4. Tie the ends of the bandage around a stick (or something similar to a stick)

  5. Turn the stick to tighten the tourniquet

  6. Continue tightening until the bleeding stops

  7. Secure the stick so the tourniquet stays tight

  8. Note what time the tourniquet was placed

  9. Get medical help ASAP

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Action for Using a Premade Tourniquet

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Call 911 and wear PPE

  2. Place the tourniquet 2 inches above the injury, if possible

  3. Tighten the tourniquet until the bleeding stops

  4. Note what time you put the tourniquet on

  5. Get medical help ASAP

  6. Leave the tourniquet on until someone with more advanced training takes over

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Action if a person faints and then responds

  1. Ask the person to continue to lie flat on the floor until they can sit up and feels normal

  2. If the person fell, look for injuries caused by the fall

  3. Call 911

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Actions After seizure

  1. See if the person needs CPR. If they do, give CPR. If you don't know how, give Hands-Only CPR

  2. Stay with the person until someone with more advanced training takes over

  3. If the person is vomiting or has fluids in their mouth and you think the person doesn't have a head, neck or spine injury, Roll them on their side

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Actions During a seizure

  1. Make sure the scene is safe

  2. Protect the person by: Moving furniture or other objects out of the way Place a small pad or towel under the person's head if it's easy to do so

  3. Call or have someone call 911 NEVER PUT ANYTHING IN THEIR MOUTH WHILE THEY'RE HAVING A SEIZURE (THEY CAN CHOKE)

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Actions for a Person Who is Dizzy but Still Responds

  1. Make sure the scene is safe

  2. Help the person lie flat on the floor

  3. If they person doesn't improve or stops responding, call 911

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Actions for an Epinephrine Pen

  1. Get the prescribed epinephrine pen

  2. Take off the safety cap. Follow the instructions on the pen

  3. Hold the Epi pen in your fist without touching either end because the needle comes out of one end

  4. Push the end with the needle hard against the side of the person's thigh, about halfway between the hip and knee. Give the injection through clothes or on bare skin

  5. Hold the pen in place for about 10 seconds

  6. Remove the needle by pulling the pen straight out

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Actions for bleeding you see

  1. Make sure the scene is safe

  2. Put a dressing on the wound. Apply direct pressure on the dressing. Use the flat part of your fingers or the palm of your hand

  3. If the bleeding does not stop, add more dressings on top of the first and press harder

  4. Keep pressure on the wound until it stops bleeding

  5. If you can't keep pressure on the wound, wrap a bandage firmly over the dressing to hold the dressing in place

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Actions for Eye Injuries

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Get the first aid kit. Wear PPE

  2. Call or have someone call 911 if the eye is hit hard or punctured. Tell the person to keep their eyes closed

  3. If there is irritant, such as sand, in the eye. Use water to rinse the eye

  4. If the irritant does not come out or if the person is in extreme pain call 911 and tell them to keep their eyes closed

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Actions for giving First Aid for a Small Burn

  1. Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE

  2. If the burn area is small, cool it immediately with cold, but not ice-cold water. Run cold water on the burn until it doesn't hurt

  3. You may cover the burn with a dry, nonstick, sterile or clean dressing

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Actions for giving first aid for an Electricity Injury

  1. Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit and AED. Wear PPE

  2. Call 911

  3. When it is safe to touch the injured person, see if they need CPR

  4. A healthcare provider should check everyone who has an electrical injury

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Actions for giving First Aid to a person who may have Bleeding you can't see

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Get the first aid kit and AED. Wear PPE

  2. call or ask someone to call 911

  3. Have the person lie down and stay still

  4. Check for signs of shock

  5. See if the person needs CPR. If they do, give them CPR. If you don't know how give Hands-Only CPR

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Actions for giving First Aid to a Person with a Nosebleed

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Get the first aid kit. Wear PPE

  2. Press both sides of the nostrils while the person sits and leans forward

  3. Place constant pressure on both sides of the nostrils for a few minutes until the bleeding stops

  4. If bleeding continues, press harder

  5. Call 911 if:

  • You can't stop the bleeding in about 15 minutes

  • The bleeding is heavy, such as gushing blood

  • The person has trouble breathing

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Actions for giving First Aid to a person with an Amputation

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Get the first aid kit and AED. Wear PPE

  2. Call or ask someone to call 911

  3. Stop the bleeding from the injured area with pressure. You will have to press for a long time with very firm pressure to stop the bleeding

  4. If you find the amputated part, protect it

  5. Stay with the injured person until more advanced training takes over

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Actions for giving first aid to a person with an Animal or Human Bite:

  1. Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Wear PPE

  2. For animal bites call 911

  3. Clean the wound with a lot of running water (and soap if available)

  4. Stop any bleeding with pressure and dressings

  5. For all bites that break the skin, call a healthcare provider

  6. If there is a bruise or swelling, place a bag of ice and water wrapped in a towel on the bite for up to 20 minutes These animals may carry rabies: cats, dogs, skunks, raccoon, fox, bat, or other wild animals

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Actions for Giving First Aid to a Person with Bleeding from the Mouth

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Get the first aid kit. Wear PPE

  2. If you can easily reach the bleeding, apply pressure to the area with dressings

  3. Call or ask someone to call 911 if:

  • You can't stop the bleeding

  • The person has trouble breathing

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Actions for Head, Neck, and Spine Injuries

  1. Make sure the scene is safe

  2. Call or ask someone to call 911

  3. Minimize movement of the head and neck

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Actions for How to Help Someone with Breathing Problems

  1. Make sure scene is safe

  2. Ask if they have medicine (get it if they can't)

  3. Ask if you have the right medicine

  4. Assemble and use the Inhaler

  5. Call 911 if: person has no medicine, don't get better after using the medicine, person's breathing gets worse, trouble speaking, stops responding

  6. Stay with them until someone with more advanced training takes over

  7. See if they need CPR

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Actions for Large Burns

  1. Make sure scene is safe. Get first aid kit. Call 911

  2. If person is on fire, put fire out

  3. Remove jewelry and clothing that is not stuck to the skin

  4. Cover the person with a dry blanket

  5. Check for signs of shock Cover the person with a dry blanket to keep the person warm because once the skin has burned, the person can no longer control body temp well and often gets cold

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Actions for Self-Splinting an Arm

If you don't have anything to use as a splint, a person can use his other arm to hold the injured one in place.

  1. Make sure scene is safe

  2. Have the injured person place his hand across his chest and hold it in place with his other arm

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Actions for Severe Allergic Reactions

  1. Make sure the scene is safe

  2. Call or send someone to call 911 and get the first aid kit

  3. If the person responds and has an Epi pen, help them get it. Ask them to use it

  4. If they can't use it them self, and if you're allowed, use the Epi pen to give them an injection

  5. Rub the injection spot for about 10 seconds

  6. After using the Epi pen, dispose of it properly

  7. Note the time of injection

  8. See if the person needs CPR. If they do, give CPR. If you don't know how, give Hands-Only CPR

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Actions for Someone with a Possible Heart Attack

  1. Make sure the person stays calm and rests

  2. Call or have someone call 911

  3. Ask someone to get the first aid kit and AED if available

  4. If the person has no allergy to aspirin, no serious bleeding, and no signs of a stroke, give them an aspirin (either 2 low-dose aspirin or 1 regular)

  5. See if the person needs CPR. If they do, give CPR. If you don't know how, give Hands-Only CPR

It's best if the person doesn't drive them self to the hospital. Stay with them until someone with more advanced training arrives and takes over

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Actions for Splinting

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Get the first aid kit. Wear PPE

  2. To make a splint, use something (such as a magazine) that will keep the arm or leg from moving

  3. Ideally, place the splint so that it extends beyond the injured area and supports the joints above and below the injury

  4. Tie the splint to the injured body part so that it supports the joints above and below the injury

  5. Make sure that the injured person is checked by a healthcare provider

  • If the injured part is bleeding, apply direct pressure to stop the bleeding and apply a dressing to the wound before applying the splint

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Actions for Tooth Injuries

  1. Make sure the scene is safe. Get the first aid kit. Wear PPE

  2. Check the mouth for any missing teeth, loss teeth, or parts of teeth

  3. Clean the wound with saline or clean water

  4. If a tooth is loose, have the bite down on a piece of gauze to keep the tooth in place and call a dentist

  5. If a tooth is chipped, gently clean the injured area and call a dentist

  6. Apply pressure with gauze to stop any bleeding at the empty tooth socket

  7. If a tooth has come out, put the tooth in a cup of milk or clean water and immediately take the injured person and tooth to a dentist or emergency department

  8. Tell the person to talk with a dentist if a tooth changes color after an injury

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Actions if Someone is Responding and shows Signs of Low Blood Sugar

  1. If the person can sit up and swallow, give them something that contains sugar to eat or drink

  2. Have him sit quietly or lie down

  3. Call or have someone call 911

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Actions to Protect an Amputated Part

  1. Rinse the Amputated part with clean water

  2. Cover or wrap the Amputated part with a clean dressing

  3. If it will fit, place the Amputated part in a watertight plastic bag

  4. Place the bag in another container with ice or ice and water; label it with the injured person's name, date, and time

  5. Make sure it is sent to the hospital with the injured person

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Actions when someone is having a stroke

  1. Make sure scene is safe

  2. Call or ask someone to call 911 and get the first aid kit and AED if available

  3. Note the time when the signs of stroke first started

  4. See if the person needs CPR. If they do, give CPR. If you don't know how give Hands-Only CPR

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After The Emergency

you learn private things about others, like their medical condition. You must not share this information with others keep it confidential

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Although many bites are

minor, some may break the skin. When a bite breaks the skin, the wound can bleed and may become infected from the germs in the biter's mouth. Bites that do not break the skin are not usually serious

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Always ask

the ill or injured person if they need help

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Amputation

If a part of the body, such as a finger, toe, hand or foot is cut off, save the body part because doctors may be able to reattach it. You can preserve a detached body part at room temperature, but it will be in a better condition to be reattached if you keep it cool

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Assembling and Using an Inhaler

  1. Shake the medicine

  2. Put medicine canister into mouthpiece

  3. Remove the cap from mouthpiece

  4. Attach a spacer if there is one available

  5. Tilt the person's head back slightly and have them breath out slowly

  6. Put inhaler or spacer in their mouth

  7. Push down the medicine canister. Have person breathe out slowly

  8. Have them hold their breath for 10 seconds and breathe slowly

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assessing the scene

Danger: Look out for danger to the injured person, only move them if they're in immediate danger and it is safe to do so Help: Look for people who can help and call 911, if not call yourself Who: who is injured? see if there are others that are hurt, see if they can tell you what happened Where: Where are you? Be specific, 911 will want to know everything from address, floor or location in the building or outside

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Bandage

is material used to protect or cover an injured body part. A bandage may also help keep pressure on the wound

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Bleeding

often looks worse than it is. When a large blood vessel is cut or torn, the person can lose a lot of blood within minutes. You can stop most bleeding with pressure. If the injured person can help you, ask them to put direct pressure on the wound while you put on your PPE

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Bleeding From the Mouth

can be serious if blood or broken teeth block the airway and cause breathing problems or if you can't reach the bleeding area. You can usually stop bleeding from the mouth with pressure.

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Burns

are injuries that can be caused by contact with heat, electricity, or chemicals. Heat burns can be caused by contact with fire, a hot surface, a hot liquid, or steam

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Call 911 if

-There is a lot of bleeding

  • You cannot stop the bleeding

  • You see signs of shock

  • You suspect a head, neck, or spine injury

  • You are not sure what you do

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Call or have someone call 911 for burns if

  • There is a fire

  • The person has a large burn

  • You are not sure what to do

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Choking

is when food or another object gets stuck in the airway

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Choking Sign

holding neck with 1 or both hands

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Diabetes

is a disease that affects levels of sugar in the blood. Too much or too little sugar causes problems. Too much insulin can also cause low blood sugar

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During a seizure

the person may bite his tongue during a seizure. Give first aid for that injury after the seizure stops. After a seizure it is not unusual for the person to be confused or get sleepy

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Electricity

can burn the body on the inside and outside. Electricity can stop breathing or cause a deadly abnormal heart rhythm Electricity may leave only small marks on the body. No one can tell how much damage there is inside the body based on the marks on the outside

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Electricity can travel

from the source through the injured person to you. Stay clear of the injured person as long as they are in contact with the power source that is on. You should turn off the main power switch only if you know how and can safely do so. Once the power is off, you may touch the injured person

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Epinephrine (Epi) Pen

can be injected through clothing, the injection is given in the side of the thigh

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Eye Injuries

  • With a direct hit or punch to the eye or the side of the head

  • When a ball or other object directly hits the eye

  • When a high-speed object, such as a BB gun pellet, hits the eye

  • When a stick or other sharp object punctures the eye

  • When a small object, such as a piece of dirt, gets in the eye

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Fainting

is a short period when a person stops responding for less than a minute and then seems fine. This is usually caused by not enough blood going to the brain. Seconds before fainting, they may feel dizzy

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Fainting often occurs when the person:

-Stands without moving for a long time, especially if the weather is hot -Has a heart condition -Suddenly stands after squatting or bending down -Receives bad news

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Finding the problem

  1. Check the scene to be sure it is safe

  2. Tap the person and shout, "Are you OK?" If the person is responsive tell then you're there to help, ask permission and ask what the problem is. If the person is unresponsive help anyway, call or have someone call 911 & get the first aid kit and AED

  3. Check if the person is breathing. If not, begin CPR and use AED if available

  4. Look for any obvious signs of injury ( Bleeding, Broken Bones, Burns, Bites)

  5. Look for medical jewelry

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First Aid

is the immediate care that you give someone with an illness or injury before someone with more advanced training arrives and takes over

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Giving First Aid

1.If they respond introduce yourself as a first aid provider before you help. Ask if you may help 2.If the person agrees then you give first aid 3.if the person refuses help, call 911 and stay with them until someone more with more advanced training comes 4.If the person is confused or cannot answer, assume they would want help

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Heart Disease (Attack)

single biggest cause of death in the United States, the first minutes of a heart attack are the most important, if it gets worse you can die

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Heimlich Maneuver

thrusts slightly above belly button

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High Voltage

if electrical injury is caused by high voltage, such as a fallen power line, electricity can travel through everything that touches the power line or source (even a wooden stick). Wait until the power has been turned off to enter the area to help

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How to help someone with breathing problems

  1. Make sure scene is safe

  2. Ask if they have medicine (get it if they can't)

  3. Ask if you have the right medicine

  4. Assemble and use the inhaler

  5. Call 911 if: person has no medicine, don't get better after using the medicine, person's breathing gets worse, trouble speaking, stops responding

  6. Stay with them until someone with more advanced training takes over

  7. See if they need CPR

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How to phone for help when alone

  1. Yell for help while you start to check the ill or injured person

  2. If no one answers your yell & immediate care isn't needed; leave for a moment while you call 911, get first aid kit and AED, if available

  3. Return to the ill or injured person

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How to phone for help when with others

  1. Stay with the ill or injured be prepared to give first aid or CPR

  2. Send someone else to call 911 and get the first aid kit and AED if available Answering all of the dispatcher's questions is important to getting help to you as fast as possible When you call for help, the emergency dispatcher may be able to tell you how to do CPR, use an AED, or give first aid

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If Choking is Mild

the person can make sounds, cough loudly you should- Stand by and let them cough, If worried about their breathing call 911

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If Choking is Severe

the person can't breathe, cough has no sound, can't talk or make a sound, makes the choking sign you should- Act Quickly

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If someone with diabetes

is unable to sit up and swallow, don't give them anything to eat or drink

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If you suspect someone is having a heart attack

Act quickly, Don't Hesitate

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Inhalers

are made up of 2 parts: the medicine canister and the mouthpiece

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Joint Sprains

happens when joints move in directions they're not supposed to go. Without an X-ray it may be impossible to tell whether the bone is broken SIGNS:There may be swelling and the joint may turn slightly blue if it is sprained

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Leave Penetrating Objects in

if a person is injured and a sharp object, such as a nail or a knife, remains partly stuck in the body, leave it in the body. Taking it out may cause more damage

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Leave the bent or deformed body part

in their bent or deformed position as you apply the splint. If a broken bone has come through the skin, cover the wound with a clean dressing, and splint as needed

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Low Blood Sugar can occur if a person with diabetes has

Not eaten or is vomiting, Not eaten enough food for the level of activity, Injected too much insulin

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Mild Allergic Reaction

-Stuffy nose, sneezing -Itching around the eyes, itching of the skin -Raised, red rash on the skin (hives)

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Minor cut or scrape

wash the area with lots of clean water to get the wound clean before applying the dressing. You will use less direct pressure to stop the bleeding for a minor cut or scrape than for a major cut or scrape

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Most first aid kits have a triangular bandage

this is ideal for making a tourniquet

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Never place an Amputated body part

directly on ice or in water because the ice or water may damage it

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Nosebleeds

it's sometimes hard to tell how much bleeding there is because the injured often swallows some of the blood. This may cause the person to vomit

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Penetrating or Puncturing Objects

an object such as knife or sharp stick can wound a person by penetrating the body or puncturing the skin. Leave the object in place until a healthcare provider can treat the injury

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People can be allergic to many things, including:

Many foods, such as eggs, nuts, chocolate Insect stings or bites, especially bee or wasp stings

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Severe Allergic Reactions

-Trouble breathing -Swelling of the tongue and face -Signs of shock

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Shock

develops when there is not enough blood flowing to the cells of the body. Someone with shock may stop responding. In adults shock is most often present is someone: -Loses a lot of blood that you may not be able to see -Has a severe heart attack -Has a severe allergic reaction

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Signs

During some types of seizures, the person may: Lose muscle control Fall to the ground Jerk arms, legs, or other parts of the body Stop responding

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Signs in Women, the Elderly, and Diabetics

Women, the Elderly, and people with diabetes are more likely to have the less typical signs of a heart attack, such as an ache in the chest, heart burn, or indigestion. They may have an uncomfortable feeling in the back, jaw, neck, or shoulder. They may also complain of shortness of breath or have nausea or vomiting

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Signs of a Head Injury

  • Does not respond or only moans or moves

  • Acts sleepy or confused

  • Vomits

  • Complains of a headache

  • Has trouble seeing

  • Has trouble walking or moving any part of the body

  • Has a seizure

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Signs of Breathing Problems

breathing very fast or very slow, have trouble with every breath, has noisy breathing, can only make sounds or speak no more than a few words at a time

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Signs of Eye Injury includes:

  • Pain

  • Trouble seeing

  • Bruising

  • Bleeding

  • Redness, Swelling

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Signs of Heart Attack

Chest Discomfort: Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain. If someone has an uncomfortable feeling in the chest, think heart attack Discomfort in Other Areas of the Upper Body: Symptoms can include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or abdomen Shortness of Breath: this may occur with or without chest discomfort Other Signs: May include cold sweat, nausea, or light-headedness

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Signs of Low Blood Sugar can appear quickly and may include:

-A change in behavior, such as confusion or irritability -Sleepiness or not responding -Hunger, thirst, or weakness -Sweating, pale skin color -A seizure

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Signs of Shock

A person in shock may: -Feel weak, faint, or dizzy -Feel nauseous or thirsty -Have pale or grayish skin -Act restless, agitated, or confused -Be cold and clammy to the touch

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Small wounds

heal better and with less infection if an antibiotic ointment or cream is used. Apply antibiotic ointment or cream and then a clean dressing, but only if the wound is a small scrape or surface cut and only if the person doesn't have any allergies to the antibiotics

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Spinal Cord

bones of the spine protect the spinal cord. The spinal cord carries messages between the brain the brain and the body. If the spine is damaged, the spinal cord may be injured. The person may not be able to move their legs or arms and may lose feeling in parts of the body

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Splint

keeps an injured body part from moving. You may need to apply a splint to an arm or leg; use rolled-up towels, and pieces of wood. You should be able to put a few fingers between the splint and the injured body part. Don't tie the splint too tight.

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Strokes

occur when blood stops flowing to a part of the brain. This can happen if there is bleeding or a blocked blood vessel in the brain. The signs of a stroke are usually very sudden It is important to recognize the signs of a stroke quickly and get medical care fast

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Supplying a first Aid Kit

keep the supplies in a sturdy, watertight container that is clearly labeled, Know where it is, Replace what you use, Check for expired supplies and make sure everything is in it

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