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When referring to the "software layer cake" model, Microsoft Office, Angry Birds, and MySQL are all _______

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118 Terms

1

When referring to the "software layer cake" model, Microsoft Office, Angry Birds, and MySQL are all _______

applications

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2

When referring to the "software layer cake" model, Android, Windows, and iOS are all

operating systems

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3

Control programs stored on chips (often used in embedded systems) are sometimes referred to as

firmware

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4

Scroll bars and menus displayed on the hardware of the computer display are examples of a graphical ___________

user interface

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5

_____ refers to applications that address the needs of multiple users throughout an organization or work group

Enterprise software

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6

____ systems help a firm manage aspects of its value chain, from the flow of raw materials into the firm, through delivery of finished products and services at the point-of-consumption

Supply chain management

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7

Firms that invite other organizations to integrate with their systems via Web services and APIs are often thought of as turning their products into _______

platforms

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8

A(n) _____ is a software program that makes requests of a server program.

client

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9

_____ are programming hooks or guidelines, published by organizations tell how other programs can get a service to perform a task, such as send or receive data

Application programming interfaces (or APIs)

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10

. Some programming languages are extended by _______________. These are libraries, templates, and extensions that simplify and standardize common tasks, speeding software development, reducing errors, and prompting reuse. Examples of popular frameworks used to develop websites include Rails (for Ruby), Django (for Python), AngularJS (for JavaScript), and ASP.NET (pronounced "ay-ess-pee dot net").

frameworks

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11

Programming tools that execute within an application are called _____.

scripting languages

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12

The __________ method (the classic, but increasingly out-of-favor approach) is a relatively linear sequential approach to software development (and other projects)

waterfall

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13

The use of upfront documentation can help prevent __________, or expansion of the scope of a project.

feature creep

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14

. _____ is a process-improvement approach that assists in assessing the maturity, quality, and development of certain organizational business processes, and suggests steps for their improvement

Capability maturity model integration (CMMI)

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15

____ is the flagship open source product

Linux OS

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16

The _____ of open source products is used to power many of the Internet's most popular websites

LAMP stack

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17

_______________ is the name of the popular service where you'll find millions of open source projects hosted and shared

GitHub

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18

_______is an OSS version of Microsoft Office.

LibreOffice

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19

For consumers in most industrialized nations, the added complexity and ____________availability of desktop Linux just it isn't worth the one to two hundred dollars saved by giving up Windows.

limited desktop application

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20

_____ refers to a form of cloud computing where a firm subscribes to third-party software and receives a service that is delivered online

Software as a service (SaaS)

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21

The term _____ describes the use of cloud computing to provide excess capacity during periods of spiking demand.

cloudbursting

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22

In _____, clients can select their own operating systems, development environments, underlying applications like databases, or other software packages, while the cloud firm usually manages the infrastructure.

infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

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23

Many firms have developed rapid-deployment ________ modules that are preconfigured and packed inside shipping containers.

server farm

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24

The phrase ____________ refers to a type of virtualization that allows applications to share an operating system, but it still lets resources be shuttled around from low-powered hardware to massive pools of servers if capacity spikes.

containers

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25

_____ is the general term used to describe the massive amount of data available to today's managers

Big data

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26

The acronym_____ refers to a technology that is often used to tag objects and inventory items so that they can "announce their presence" as they make their way along an organization's value chain.

RFID

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27

____________ refers to type of artificial intelligence that leverages massive amounts of data so that computers can improve the accuracy of actions and predictions on their own without additional programming

Machine learning

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28

The term ____________ refers to a technology that sends messages to smartphones and other devices using a low-energy Bluetooth signal.

iBeacon

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29

Changing pricing based on demand conditions is known as ________

Dynamic pricing

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30

Database technology known by the term __________________ is especially popular with Internet firms that rely on massive, unwieldy, and disparately structured data; and this technology is often at the heart of what are often characterized as "big data" efforts.

NoSQL

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31

____ is a language used to create and manipulate databases.

Structured query language (SQL)

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32

_____ refers to a job title focused on directing, performing, or overseeing activities associated with a database or set of databases.

Database administrator

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33

____ are the most common standard for expressing databases, whereby tables (files) are related based on common keys.

Relational databases

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34

Systems that record a transaction (some form of business-related exchange), such as a cash register sale, ATM withdrawal, or product return are referred to as _____.

transaction processing systems (TPS)

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35

_____ is the term used to describe some form of business exchange.

Transaction

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36

_____ systems are often used to empower employees to track and record data at nearly every point of customer contact.

CRM or customer relationship management

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37

It's believed that medical errors are the _____ leading cause of death in the United States.

third

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38

In some instances, firms supplement operational data with additional input from _____and_________.

surveys; focus groups

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39

Airbnb's "____________" feature helps by leveraging the firm's industry-leading dataset, far larger and more comprehensive than rivals, and constantly updated over time, to suggest the perfect rate

smart pricing

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40

The open-source project known as ____________ was created to analyze massive amounts of raw information better than traditional, highly structured databases

Hadoop

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41

The three Vs of "Big Data" are _, _, and ______; characteristics that distinguish it from conventional data analysis problems and require a new breed of technology.

volume, velocity, and variety

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42

Systems that can absorb any type of data, structured or not, from any type of source are often called ____________.

schema-less

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43

Addressing a data need to compete in business or address future goals is known as

data relevance

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44

Addressing the data system housing, hardware and networking requirements is known as ___________

data hosting

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45

____ are AI systems that leverage rules or examples to perform a task in a way that mimics applied human expertise.

Expert systems

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46

The category of AI technology used by Google to recognize patterns to improve speech recognition is known as ________

neural networks

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47

An integrated shopping experience and unified customer view across channels is sometimes referred to as __________

omnichannel

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48

_________ are model-building techniques where computers examine many potential solutions to a problem, iteratively modifying (mutating) various mathematical models, and comparing the mutated models to search for a best alternative function.

Genetic algorithms

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49

_________ are AI systems that leverage rules or examples to perform a task in a way that mimics applied human expertise.

Expert systems

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50

_____ refers to the ratio of a company's annual sales to its inventory

Inventory turnover ratio

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51

Walmart uses_____ technology to sift through massive amounts of social media data.

Hadoop

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52

The virtual shutdown of websites by way of overloading them with seemingly legitimate requests sent simultaneously from thousands of machines is termed as _____ attacks.

distributed denial of service (DDoS)

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53

____, probably the most notorious known act of cyberwarfare effort to date (one expert called it "the most sophisticated worm ever created"), is suspected to have been launched by either U.S. or Israeli intelligence (or both), and it infiltrated Iranian nuclear facilities and reprogrammed the industrial control software operating hundreds of uranium-enriching centrifuges.

Stuxnet

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54

___ refers to a term that either means breaking into a computer system or a particularly clever solution.

Hack

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55

Former CIA employee and NSA contractor, ____________ is seen by many as either a whistleblowing hero or a traitorous villain. This person gathered sensitive digital documents from U.S., British, and Australian agencies, and leaked them to the press, exposing the extent of government surveillance efforts.

Edward Snowden

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56

The phrase ______________ refers to security where identity is proven by presenting more than one item for proof of credentials. Multiple factors often include a password and some other identifier such as a unique code sent via e-mail or mobile phone text, a biometric reading (e.g. fingerprint or iris scan), a swipe or tap card, or other form of identification

two-factor or multi-factor authentication

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57

The phrase __________________ refers to security schemes that automatically send one-time use representations of a credit card that can be received and processed by banking and transaction firms at the time of payment. They are in use in ApplePay and Android Wallet.

tokenization

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58

____________ refers to malware that encrypts a user's files (perhaps threatening to delete them), with demands that a user pay to regain control of their data and/or device.

Ransomware

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59

Public wireless networks are often vulnerable to monitoring and attack. The use of _______ software can limit threats by encrypting network transmissions over a network.

VPN or virtual private network

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60

Con games that trick employees into revealing information or performing other tasks that compromise a firm are known as _____ in security circles.

social engineering

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61

___ refers to confidence scams executed through technology

Phishing

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62

The _____ technique zeros in on a sloppy programming practice where software developers don't validate user input

SQL injection

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63

Fingerprint readers, retina scanners, voice and face recognition technologies are all part of ____

biometrics

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64

_____ are scrambled character images used to thwart things like automated account setup or ticket buying

CAPTCHAs

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65

____ refers to a trusted third party that provides authentication services in public key encryption schemes.

Certificate authority

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66

_____ are seemingly tempting but bogus targets meant to draw hacking attempts.

Honeypots

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67

______ are highly restrictive programs that permit communication only with approved entities and/or in an approved manner.

Whitelists

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68

____ are systems that act as controls for network traffic, blocking unauthorized traffic while permitting acceptable use.

Firewalls

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69

When a firm _____, it sells stock to the public for the first time.

goes public

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70

_____ are systems distributed throughout the Internet (or other network) that help to improve the delivery (and hence loading) speeds of Web pages and other media, typically by spreading access across multiple sites located closer to users

Content delivery networks

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71

Facebook followed Twitter's _____ with its own Facebook live video streaming tool.

Periscope

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72

___ refer to programming hooks, or guidelines, published by firms that tell other programs how to get a service to perform a task such as sending or receiving data.

Application programming interfaces

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73

When others take advantage of a user or service without providing any sort of reciprocal benefit it is called a ____

free rider problem

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74

China's fast-growing WeChat is the world's _________largest mobile-messaging service

third

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75

If increasingly large parts of the Web reside inside a single (and, for the most part, closed) service, innovation, __________, and exchange may suffer.

competition

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76

____ is a term used to describe each time an ad is served to a user for viewing

Impression

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77

The advertising acronym CPM is defined as _____

cost per thousand impression

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78

The acronym ARPU represents the phrase ______

average revenue per user

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79

Issues of content adjacency and ______ can make social networking ads less attractive than ads running alongside search and professionally produced content sites.

user attention

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80

The New York Times points out, fewer than half of global Internet users have __________ high enough to interest major advertisers

disposable incomes

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81

Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg has declared Internet access to be a "____________."

human right

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82

Market capitalization refers to the value of a firm calculated by multiplying its _____ by the number of shares.

share price

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83

________ is the category of online advertising that captures the most advertising dollars

Search advertising (or paid search)

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84

Google offers employees___________________ the ability to work the equivalent of one day a week on new projects that interest them.

20 percent time

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85

___ refers to the search engine results that are returned and ranked according to relevance

Organic/Natural search

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86

The phrase __________ refers to the process of improving a page's organic search results.

SEO or search engine optimization

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87

Managers looking to plot changes in popularity of a given search term, or compare changes among several terms over time, can leverage a Google product known as __________

trends (or Google Trends)

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88

____ refers to the practice of designing, running and optimizing search engine ad campaigns.

Search engine marketing

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89

____ refers to advertisements that are targeted based on a user's query.

Keyword advertising

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90

A Pinterest link for a vintage handbag that, when clicked, jumps immediately to bag vendor's page within the Etsy app. This is an example of the technique known in the industry as _________

deep linking

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91

Advertising based on a website's content is called _____.

contextual advertising

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92

Advertisers use _____ to indicate that an advertisement should not be shown when a query contains these terms.

negative keywords

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93

Google's goodwill motto is ____________

Don't Be Evil

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94

___ are hordes of surreptitiously infiltrated computers, linked and controlled by rogue software.

Zombie networks/botnets

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95

___ contains sites that wrap data in tags that can be recognized by search engines, analysis tools, and other services to make it easier for computer programs to accurately categorize, compare, and present this information.

Semantic Web

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96

_____ is the primary technology that enables Google Wallet to make wireless payments with the wave of a phone.

NFC or near field communication

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97

_____ is the primary asset for competitive advantage that is created when users load their files, content, and other data onto free cloud storage

Switching cost

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98

______ refers to content that is created, shared, and commented on by a broader community of users

Social media

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99

______ is a term referring to the collective community of bloggers, as well as those who read and comment on blogs

Blogosphere

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100

Links in a blog post that refer readers back to cited sources are called _____

trackbacks

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