Myers Unit 9 - Developmental Psychology

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

developmental psychology

1 / 116

Tags and Description

117 Terms

1

developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

New cards
2

Zygote

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

New cards
3

embryo

the developing human organism forms about 2 weeks after fertilization through 2nd month

New cards
4

embryo

zygote inner cells become...

New cards
5

Placenta

zygote outer cells become...

New cards
6

placenta

life-line that transfers nutrients and oxygen from mom to embryo

New cards
7

fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

New cards
8

Teratogens

"monster maker" agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

New cards
9

fetal alchohol syndrome (FAS)

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial features

New cards
10

epigenetic effects

effect of alcohol, leaves chemical marks on DNA that switches gene abnormality on/off

New cards
11

rooting reflex

tendency for babies to turn towards something touching their cheek, with an open mouth, looking for a nipple

New cards
12

Habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.

New cards
13

Maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

New cards
14

pruning process

"use-it-or-lose-it"; shuts down unused links and strengthens others that are used more

New cards
15

back-to-sleep position

putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of a smothering crib death

New cards
16

infantle amnesia

not remembering things from early childhood; earliest memory at 3.5 y/o

New cards
17

cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating; studied by Jean Piaget

New cards
18

Schemas

a concept or framework that organizes our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

New cards
19

Assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of existing schemas

New cards
20

accommodation

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

New cards
21

sensormotor stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (birth to about 2 years) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and their motor activities

New cards
22

object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived; not fully developed until 8th month

New cards
23

Preoperational stage

in piaget's theory, the stage (2 to 6 or 7 y/o) wear a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations id concrete logic

New cards
24

conservation

the principle (believed by Piaget to be part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects (6-7 years old)

New cards
25

symbolic thinking

representing things with words and images (about 3 years old)

New cards
26

Egocentrism

in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

New cards
27

curse of knowledge

tendency to overestimate the extent to which others will share our knowledge/opinions

New cards
28

theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states鈥攁bout their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict. (about 7 months)

New cards
29

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors

New cards
30

high functioning autism

high intelligence and exceptional skills/talent, but lack of social and communication skulls; easily distracted

New cards
31

low functioning autism

little to no usage of language

New cards
32

concrete operational stage

in piaget's theory, the stage of development (6/7 to 11 y/o) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events; begins to grasp conservation

New cards
33

formal operational stage

in piaget's theory. the stage of cognitive development (about 12 y/o) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

New cards
34

zone of proximal development

zone between what a child can and can't do; what they could do with help

New cards
35

cross-sequential design

different participants of various ages are compared at several points in time; determines age related differences and changes

New cards
36

longitudinal design

same participants studied at various ages; determines age-related changes

New cards
37

cross-sectional study

compares groups of people at different ages at a single point in time

New cards
38

Stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning at 8 months

New cards
39

attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation (peaks at 15 months)

New cards
40

critical period

an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

New cards
41

imprinting

the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early-life critical period

New cards
42

secure attachment

Infants use the mother as a home base from which to explore when all is well, but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened

New cards
43

insecure attachment

Infants are wary of exploring the environment and resist or avoid the mother when she attempts to offer comfort or consolation

New cards
44

temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

New cards
45

difficult babies

Irritable, intense and unpredictable babies

New cards
46

easy babies

cheerful, relaxed, predictable

New cards
47

slow-to-warm-up babies

resists or withdraws from new people/situations

New cards
48

Maternal deprivation

experienced by people who lacks caring mother

New cards
49

basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

New cards
50

self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to question "who am i" (fully developed at 12 years)

New cards
51

authoritarian parenting

parents impose rules and expect obedience (children has less self-esteem)

New cards
52

permissive parenting

parents submit to children's desires; little demands/punishments (children more reckless and agressive)

New cards
53

authoriative parenting

parents are both demanding and responsive. Exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but also explain reasons for rules. (children has high self-esteem, reliance, and social competence)

New cards
54

family self

what shames the child shames the family, and what brings honor to the family brings honor to the self

New cards
55

selection effect

tendency to choose peers with similar attitudes and interests

New cards
56

life-span perspective

to see that development is lifelong

New cards
57

adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

New cards
58

menarche

the first menstrual period

New cards
59

myelin

fatty tissue layer that forms around axons and speeds neurotransmission

New cards
60

formal operations

teens apply new abstract reasoning tools to world

New cards
61

moral reasoning

thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong (pre-conventional, conventional, post conventional

New cards
62

Preconventional

self-interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards (before age 9)

New cards
63

Conventional

uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or keep social order (early adolescence)

New cards
64

Postconventional

actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles (adolescence and beyond)

New cards
65

psychosocial task

a crisis that needs resolution in each stage of life (Erik Erikson)

New cards
66

search for identity

when adolescents wonder "who am I as an individual?"

New cards
67

identity

our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

New cards
68

social identity

the "we" aspect of out self-concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group memberships

New cards
69

Trust vs. Mistrust

Infancy (to 1 year); If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust.

New cards
70

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

toddlerhood (1-3 years); toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities

New cards
71

initiatie vs. guilt

preschool(3-6 years); preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry our plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent.

New cards
72

Competence vs. Inferiority

Elementary school (6-Puberty); children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior

New cards
73

identity vs. role confusion

adolescence (teen to 20s); teens work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are

New cards
74

Intamicy vs. Isolation

young adulthood(20s to early 40s); young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated

New cards
75

generaltivity vs stagnation

middle adulthood(40s to 60s); in middle age, people discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel lack of purpose

New cards
76

integrity vs despair

late adulthood (late 60s and up); reflecting on their lives, older adults may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure

New cards
77

intimacy

in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

New cards
78

emerging adulthood

for some people in modern cultures, a period from late teens to mid-twenties, bridging gap between full independence and adulthood

New cards
79

early adulthood

20s - 30s

New cards
80

middle age

40-65 years

New cards
81

late adulthood

65 years and older

New cards
82

menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

New cards
83

neurogenesis

the birth of new nerve cells in hippocampus

New cards
84

neurocognitive disorder

dementia; general decline in mental ability

New cards
85

terminal decline

3-4 last years of life were cognitive decline accelerates

New cards
86

social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

New cards
87

intimacy

forming close relationships

New cards
88

Generativity

being productive and supporting future generations

New cards
89

insecure-resistant attachment

extremely distressed by the separations and cannot be soothed at reunions (type of insecure attachment)

New cards
90

insecure-avoidant attachment

wary of closeness, so they try to avoid emotional connection with others (type of insecure attachment)

New cards
91

gender

the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female

New cards
92

Agression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

New cards
93

culture

everything shared by a group and transmitted across generations

New cards
94

gender roles

a set of expected behaviors for males or for females

New cards
95

role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

New cards
96

gender identity

our sense of being male or female

New cards
97

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

New cards
98

gender typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

New cards
99

gender schema

framework for organizing boy-girl characteristics

New cards
100

transgender

an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2145 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 37 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 62 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 52 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard62 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 42 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard22 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard72 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard76 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard165 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)