Euro ch 14 to 16

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Who was Marco Polo?

1 / 161

Tags and Description

162 Terms

1

Who was Marco Polo?

The Venetian trader whose tales of his travels to China fascinated Europeans

New cards
2

Which statement best characterizes the role of Europe in the system of world trade prior to the voyage of Columbus?

Europe was not the dominant player before Columbus, and the voyages derived from a desire to gain direct access to the goods of overseas trade

New cards
3

Which statement accurately relates how Europeans engaged with the slave trade in the fifteenth century?

Europeans bought and sold only Africans who had previously been enslaved

New cards
4

The Americas were so named because Amerigo Vespucci

Was the first to recognize the magnitude of Columbus's discovery

New cards
5

Pedro Alvares Cabral led the expedition that landed on which landmass in 1500?

Brazil

New cards
6

In the seventeenth century, the Dutch East India Company

Took over much of the East Indies from Portugal

New cards
7

The examples of Chirstopher Columbus, John Cabot, and Ferdinand Magellan all exemplify which trait of European overseas exploration in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries?

Royal patronage was important in funding such voyages

New cards
8

Which factor aided in the increase in Indian Ocean trade by the fourteenth century?

Predictable monsoon winds

New cards
9

Which explorer led seven expeditions for the Ming emperor between 1405 and 1433, reaching as far west as Egypt?

Zheng He

New cards
10

In the Indian Ocean trade of the fifteenth century, which product came primarily from India?

Textile

New cards
11

Which factor at least partially accounted for political and commercial stability in the Middle East during the Abbasid caliphate (750-1258)?

A common language and culture

New cards
12

After Venice came to dominate the spice trade in the fifteenth century, Genoese merchants shifted to

Finance in the western Mediterranean

New cards
13

The major resource brought back by European explorers in the northern Atlantic in the sixteenth century was

Cod

New cards
14

Which explorer led the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire?

Francisco Pizarro

New cards
15

The image entitled "Detail from the Catalan Atlas, 1375" is of a fourteenth-century Spanish map. This map provides evidence of which growing trend in the time period?

European overseas commercial expansion

New cards
16

Which factor was a major motivation for European exploration?

Desire for material profit

New cards
17

Which group benefited most from large price increases in the sixteenth century?

The middle class

New cards
18

After losing access to slaves from the Black Sea area, the Genoese obtained which group as slaves?

Black Africans

New cards
19

How did the introduction of Ptolemy's Geography mislead European cartographers?

Ptolemy asserted that the world was much smaller than it actually is, indicating that Asia was not far removed from Europe to the west

New cards
20

Which group resisted the Portuguese efforts to gain control over Indian Ocean trade?

Muslim-controlled port cities

New cards
21

When Vasco de Gama arrived in the Indian Ocean, how did he navigate the unknown waters?

He hired an Arabic guide

New cards
22

Where did Columbus believe he landed when he arrived in the Caribbean?

Islands off the coast of Japan

New cards
23

According to his agreement with the Spanish crown, which rewards would Columbus receive if he found a water route to Asia?

He would be named viceroy over any territories he discovered and receive one-tenth of the material rewards of the journey

New cards
24

Which statement best describes the accomplishment of the Treaty of Tordesillas?

It divided the Atlantic Ocean, giving Spain control of everything west of an imaginary line and Portugal everything east of the line

New cards
25

How did Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe affect Spanish colonization?

The great distances of the Pacific convinced the Spanish to abandon efforts to trade in Asia and develop their American colonies instead

New cards
26

How did the English and French seek a route to East Asia?

They sought a northwest passage across North America

New cards
27

In the fifteenth century, two rival Islamic empires dominated the Middle East: the Turkish Ottomans and the

Persian Safavids

New cards
28

Which statement best describes Hernan Cortes's crucial advantage in his conquest of the Aztec Empire

Cortes was able to exploit internal dissension within the Aztec Empire

New cards
29

Portugal's participation in European expansion received critical support from

Prince Henry

New cards
30

How did the Spanish respond to the trap set by the Inca king Atahualpa?

The Spanish ambushed and captured Atahualpa, holding him for ransom and then executing him

New cards
31

How did the Spanish monarchy seek to maintain control over its colonies?

The monarchy established viceroys with broad administrative and financial authority who were responsible directly to the monarchy

New cards
32

At the time of his death, Columbus believed the islands he found were

Off the coast of Asia

New cards
33

Bartolomé de Las Casas asserted that the Indians

Had human rights

New cards
34

How did Portuguese merchants obtain most of their slaves in Africa?

They traded for slaves with local leaders

New cards
35

Which development caused inflation in Spain in the sixteenth century?

Spain's growing population and stagnant production

New cards
36

In chronological order, which three successive commercial empires were established by Europeans in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries?

The Portuguese, the Spanish, and the Dutch

New cards
37

Which play by Shakespeare highlighted the issue of race?

Othello

New cards
38

How did justifications for slavery change from the fifteenth to eighteenth century?

Arguments supporting slavery began to focus more on science and nature and less on religion

New cards
39

How did the Turks' expansion of the Ottoman Empire and their conquest of the Byzantine Empire and its capital Constantinople in 1453 influence European exploration?

They forced Europeans to search for alternative trade routes to China, bypassing the overland routes now controlled by the Ottoman Empire

New cards
40

Which European nation, with the help of Genoese financiers, merchants, and navigators, initiated an exploration along the Atlantic coast of Africa in search of new sources of gold, silver, and copper?

Portugal

New cards
41

Based on Map 14.1: The Fifteenth-Century Afro-Eurasian Trading World, AFro-Eurasian trade during this period was centered on which body of water?

The Indian Ocean

New cards
42

According to Map 14.3: Seaborne Trading Empires in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, which nations dominated the global sea trade routes during this period?

Atlantic coastal European nations

New cards
43

The following is an excerpt from Columbus's description of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola: "Hispaniola is a wonder. The mountains and hills, the plains and meadow lands are both fertile and beautiful. They are most suitable for planting crops and for raising cattle of all kinds, and there are good sites for building towns and villages. The harbours are incredibly fine and there are many great rivers with broad channels and the majority contain gold." This description supports the contention that Columbus's patrons in Spain were particularly interested in

The economic potential of the lands Columbus explored

New cards
44

Which body of water was the center of the Afro-Eurasian trade world?

Indian Ocean

New cards
45

The Mongol emperors of China

Encouraged trade with Europe

New cards
46

Which definition describes the Portuguese caravel?

A three-masted sailing ship

New cards
47

Which group dominated the Aztec state?

A hereditary nobility

New cards
48

Spanish settlement in the Americas were centered on

Towns and cities

New cards
49

The New Laws put forward by King Charles I of Spain in 1542

Set limits on the authority of encomienda holders

New cards
50

Which group was active in Japan and China in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, until authorities banned its teachings?

Jesuit missionaries

New cards
51

How did famines affect the European population in the seventeenth century?

The population was significantly reduced due to malnutrition and starvation

New cards
52

When speaking of "moral economy," historians are referring to

A concept of the world in which communal needs outweigh individualistic competition and profit

New cards
53

In eastern Europe between 1500 and 1650, the growth of commercial agriculture was facilitated by the

Consolidation of serfdom

New cards
54

Domestic political power in the Dutch Republic in the late seventeenth century was held by

An oligarchy of wealthy businessmen

New cards
55

How did the Peace of Westphalia mark a turning point in European history?

Large-scale armed conflicts over religious faith came to an end

New cards
56

How did the nature of armed forces change in the latter half of the seventeenth century?

Army officers became obedient to monarchs instead of serving their own interests

New cards
57

In the seventeenth century, why did rulers hesitate to crush rebellions?

Armies were expensive to deploy, and rulers feared creating martyrs

New cards
58

Louis XIV selected councilors from

Capable men of modest birth

New cards
59

The baroque style flourished in the context of

Catholic Reformation

New cards
60

The guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies was

The subordination of all institutions to the monarchy

New cards
61

How did the Peace of Utrecht resolve the problem of succession to the Spanish throne?

Louis XIV of France's grandson, Philip, was placed on the French throne with the agreement that the French and Spanish thrones would never be united

New cards
62

How did Cardinal Richelieu increase the power of the centralized French state?

He extended the use of intendants, commissioners for each of France's thirty-two districts

New cards
63

The English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes held that

The power of the ruler was absolute and prevented civil war

New cards
64

Which statement describes a consequence of Prince Francis Rakoczy's rebellion for Habsburg rule?

Hungary was never fully integrated into a centralized, absolute Habsburg state

New cards
65

Mercantilist theory postulated that

Economic activity should be regulated by and for the state

New cards
66

The primary cause of the 1688-1689 Glorious Revolution in England was

A fear that James II would establish Catholic absolutism

New cards
67

How did Frederick William of Prussia, the Great Elector, persuade the Junker nobility to accept taxation without consent in order to fund the army?

He confirmed the Junkers' privileges, including their authority over the serfs

New cards
68

How did Frederik William I, king of Prussia, sustain agricultural production while dramatically expanding the size of his army?

He ordered all Prussian men to undergo military training, after which they could return home and serve as army reservists

New cards
69

How did the princes of Moscow seek to legitimize their authority as rulers of an independent state?

They modeled their rule on the Mongol khans

New cards
70

One of the largest rebellions in seventeenth-century Russia was led by

Stenka Razin

New cards
71

Which was a social consequence of Peter the Great's bureaucratic system?

People of non-noble origin were able to rise to high positions

New cards
72

After his victory in 1709 at Poltava, Peter the Great built a new, Western-style capital on the Baltic called

St. Petersburg

New cards
73

Within the Ottoman government, which group staffed the top levels of the bureaucracy?

The sultan's slave corps

New cards
74

Why did the English government arrive at a crisis by 1640?

Charles I imposed unwelcome laws and reforms on the country

New cards
75

The heightened central control established by absolutist and constitutional governments led to which outcome?

Growth in armed forces

New cards
76

How did William Laud, the archbishop of Canterbury, create conflict in Britain in the 1630s?

He sought to impose a new prayer book modeled on the Anglican Book of Common Prayer on Presbyterian Scotland

New cards
77

In return for financial support, Charles II of England secretly promised Louis XIV of France that

English laws against Catholics would be eased and England gradually re-Catholicized

New cards
78

French foreign policy under Cardinal Richelieu focused primarily on the

Prevention of the Habsburgs from unifying the territories surrounding France

New cards
79

Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate was ultimately a

Military dictatorship

New cards
80

Which statement best characterizes the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689?

The revolution did not constitute a democratic revolution because sovereignty was placed in Parliament, which only represented the upper classes

New cards
81

Cardinal Jules Mazarin's struggle to increase royal revenues to meet the cost of war led to the uprisings of 1648-1653, known as the

Fronde

New cards
82

France's strong-economy was created by the mercantilist policies of

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

New cards
83

The Junkers were

Prussian and Brandenburger nobles who reluctantly worked with Frederick William to consolidate the Prussian state

New cards
84

The Ottomans divided their subjects into religious communities or

Millets

New cards
85

The 1688-1689 Glorious Revolution and the concept of representative government found their best defense in the Second Treatise of Civil Government by

John Locke

New cards
86

In the late-seventeenth-century Netherlands, tensions were always present between supporters of the staunchly republican Estates and supporters of

The House of Orange

New cards
87

In music, the baroque style reached its culmination in the work of

Johann Sebastian Bach

New cards
88

After a defeat at Narva, Peter the Great constructed a new army and eventually beat the Swedish in 1709 at

Poltava

New cards
89

Which lands shown on Map 15.1: Europe After the Thirty Years' War belonged to the Spanish Habsburgs?

Spain, Portugal, the Spanish Netherlands, Franche-Comte, Milan, and Naples

New cards
90

Compare Map 15.1: Europe After the Thirty Years' War to Map 15.2: Europe After the Peace of Utrecht, 1715. Which state changed hands between 1648 and 1715?

Sardinia

New cards
91

According to Map 15.4: The Growth of Austria and Brandenburg-Prussia to 1748, which territories did Prussia acquire between 1640 and 1688?

Eastern Pomerania and Magdeburg

New cards
92

According to Map 15.3: The Growth of Austria and Brandenburg-Prussia to 1748, which territories did Austria acquire after the decisive victory over the Ottoman Empire (1748)?

Banat, Serbia, and Wallachia

New cards
93

The following is an excerpt from Jacques-Beniqne Bosseuet's Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture:

New cards
94

"It appears from all this that the person of the king is sacred, and that to attack him in any way is sacrilege. God has the kings anointed by his prophets with the holy unction in like manner as he has bishops and altars anointed. But even without the external application in thus being annointed, they are by their very office the representatives of the divine majesty deputed by Providence for the execution of his purposes"

New cards
95

Based on this passage, with which statement would Bossuet most likely agree?

Kings are God's representatives on earth

New cards
96

The following is an excerpt from Jacques-Beniqne Bosseuet's Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture:

New cards
97

"The service of God and the respect for kings are bound together. St. Peter unites these two duties when he says, 'Fear God. Honour the king.' ... But kings, although their power comes from on high, as has been said, should not regard themselves as masters of that power to use it at their pleasure; ... they must employ it with fear and self-restraint, as a thing coming from God and of which God will demand an account."

New cards
98

Based on this passage, the historian can conclude that, in Bossuet's view,

Kings are accountable to God

New cards
99

The following is an excerpt from Louis XIV's Memoir for the Instruction of the Dauphin. In it, he offers advice to his son about kingship:

New cards
100

"For however it be held as a maxim that in every thing a Prince should employ the most mild measures and first, and that it is more to his advantage to govern his subjects by persuasive than coercive means, it is nevertheless certain that whenever he meets with impediments or rebellion, the interest of his crown and the welfare of his people demand that he should cause himself to be indispensably obeyed; for it must be acknowledged there is nothing can so securely establish the happiness and tranquility of a country as the perfect combination of all authority in the single person of the Sovereign."

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1446 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(12)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 55 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard127 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 75 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard94 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)