Biochem Final

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3 carbon monosaccharide

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Biology

179 Terms

1

3 carbon monosaccharide

triose

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2

4 carbon monosaccharide

tetrose

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3

5 Member Ring is called

furanose

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4

6 member ring

pyranose

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5

Aldehyde functional group and suffix

aldose

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6

alpha

OH down-opposite of D/L carbon

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7

amphiphilic

non polar aliphatic tails and polar phosphoryl-X heads

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8

androgens and estrogens

affect sexual development and function

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9

Ankyrin

binds integral membrane ion channel protein

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10

anterograde transport

vesticles bud off from fold to fold in the golgi

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11

are both alpha and beta present in a solution?

yes they are 50/50 in solution because they spontaneously convert between both

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12

Beta

OH is up-same side and of D/L carbon

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13

C-terminal sequences

Soluble resident ER proteins have C-terminal:Lys-Asp-Glu-LeuLys-Lys-X-XLys-X-Lys-X-X-X if altered, Kicked out-stay in the Golgi

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14

Can glycosaminoglycan be phosphorylated?

yes

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15

can there be more than one epimer for a sugar?

yes

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16

Carbohydrate composition

C, H, O

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17

carbohydrate recognition

trafficking of lysosomal proteins depend on oligosaccharide

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18

Cellulose

-plant cell walls-beta(1-4) glucose-reducing sugar

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19

ceramide

N-acyl fatty acid derivative of sphingosine

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20

Cerebrosides

ceramide + monosaccharide*mediates recognition events

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21

Chitin

beta(1-4) N-acetyl-D-Glucosamine *add amine group to carbon 2-makes the molecule bigger-that changes H+ bonding making it slightly less hydrophobic

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22

Cisternal progression

no leaving, just hanging out until they're ready

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23

Clathrin

-forms flexible cages or protein called triskelions

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24

COPI

transports proteins between Golgi compartments

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25

COPII

transports proteins from ER to Golgi-chases escapees from the Golgi

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26

D

-OH on the right-OH in the up position

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27

Digestion of starch

amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and debranching enzyme

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28

Disaccharide

2 monosaccharides

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29

Endoglycosidases

cleaves middle of sugar chain at glycosidic bond

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30

Epimers

differ at exactly one chiral carbon

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31

Example of a glycosaminoglycan

hyaluronic acid, heparin

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32

example of sphingolipid

Sphingomyelin, ceramide

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33

exoglycosidases

cuts terminal sugar at glycosidic bond

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34

Extrinsic membrane proteins

-bind via electrostatic and H+ bonding-easy to remove-change pH

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35

fatty acid definition

carboxylic acid with a long chain hydrocarbon side group (tail)

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36

Fatty Acylated Lipid-Linked Proteins

Myristic acid and palmate acid

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37

Flippase

Catalyzes outer to inner leaflet flip of lipids

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38

fluid mosaic model

-membrane is not static-proteins can be imbedded

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39

fluidlike properties of a bilayer

-Layers are not static-transverse (flip-flopping) of lipids-lateral diffusion-constant rotation around c-c bonds of lipid tails-temperature dependant

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40

Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP)

A method used to study the movement of proteins within living cells.

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41

function of glycoforms

  1. define protein structures2) mediated recognition events3) antigenic Determinants

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42

gangliosides

ceramide linked to an oligosaccharide

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43

Glucocorticoids

affect carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism

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44

glycoforms

same protein with variation in sequence, location, and number of covalently attached carbohydrates

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45

Glycosaminoglycans structure

alternating uronic and hexoamine residue-unbranched

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46

glycosidic bond

Anomeric carbon condenses with alcohol-alpha-beta

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47

glycosylated

proteins with oligosaccharide covalantly attached

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48

GPI-linked proteins

located only on the exterior surface of the plasma membrane

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49

Heteropolysaccharides

different monosaccharides

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50

Homopolysaccharides

same monosaccharides

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51

how are cyclic sugars made?

By the alcohol on the last carbon chiral carbon reacting with the carbonyl group

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52

How are membrane lipids distributed?

asymmetrically

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53

how are new membranes formed?

created by expanding existing membranes

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54

how are proteins directed?

-carbohydrate recognition-C-terminal sequences

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55

how are the the oligosaccharides attached to proteins?

N linked then Asn-X-Ser or Thr*X can be any amino acid except Pro and rarely Asp-then it is chopped until there is only 3 mannoses making the Y-other molecules can be added to the mannoses after the chopping

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56

how do coated vesicles preserve orientation?

-inside of the membrane is the same as the ER and Golgi and outside of the cell-stays in the same environment

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57

how do membrane lipids get to the outer leaflet

its flops out

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58

how do the polar heads sit in the bilayer?

they nestle in right next to each other

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59

How do we end up with trans fat?

-to preserve shelf life and avoid oxidation of unsaturated fats, the unsaturated fats are hydrogenated to reduce some double bounds-this converts the cis bonds to trans

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60

how do you know which carbon has a double bond?

Delta symbol C# that starts the double bond

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61

how do you number the rings?

clockwise from the anomeric carbon

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62

How does cholesterol affect membrane fluidity?

decreases fluidity

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63

how does glycogen debranching enzyme work?

breaks the alpha(1-6) bond

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64

How does glycogen phosphorylase work?

breaks the Alpha(1-4) from the nonreducing ends

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65

how does temperature effect the bilayer?

-above transition temperature - liquid crystal (liquid but organized- below - gel like solid

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66

How many monosaccharides are in a polysaccharide?

3 or more

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67

how to biological membrane fuse?

by proteins called SNAREs

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68

How to name glycosidic bonds?

Greek letter ( C# mononsaccharide 1 - C# monosaccharide 2)

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69

how to name monosaccharides

-functional group-carbon number-stereochemistry of last chiral carbon

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70

How to name triacylglycerols?

by adding -oyl to the end of each fatty acid and ending with glycerol

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71

how to remove extrinsic membrane proteins?

-add salt-interupt bonding using Urea

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72

how to translocons work?

-transmembrane proteins enter the channel- alpha helix opens to lipid bilayer releasing into lipid bilayer

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73

inner leaflet

The layer of the cell membrane phospholipid bilayer that faces the cytoplasm.

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74

integral proteins

penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer

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75

Ketone functional group and suffix

ketose

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76

L

-OH on the left-OH in the down postion

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77

lateral diffusion

movement within the same plane

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78

Lipid bilayer formation

-driven by hydrophobic effect-size constraints

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79

Lipid definition

non-polar organic molecule

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80

lipid linked proteins

-lipid acts as on anchor in the bilayer

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81

Liposome

closed self sealing solvent filled vesicles bound by a single bilayer

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82

membrane fusion

  1. zipping SNARES2) Hemifusion: Exposes the bilayer interior3) Fusion Pore: tension from SNAREs causes breakdown of the original bilayer forming new ones

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83

Mineralocorticoids

regulate salt and water balance

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84

Monosccharides composition

Aldehyde or ketone, 3+ carbons, polyhydroxy alcohols

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85

Mutarotation

switching between D and L

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86

Myristic Acid

-C14, saturated-aminde linkage, Thioester-myristoylation stable for life-located cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, inner face of plasma membrane and nucleus

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87

O-linked oligosaccharides

have glycosidic bond to the hydroxyl group of Ser or Thr residuessynthesized in the Golgimore commoncondensation Rxn

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88

Oligosaccharides

short chains of three or more monosaccharides

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89

outer leaflet

phospholipid layer next to exterior

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90

Oxidation of sugars at C1

-becomes carboxylic acid-only aldehydealdose becomes aldonic acid

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91

Oxidation of sugars at last carbon

-also changes to carboxylic acid-more soluble-primary alcohol = uronic acid

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92

palmitic acid

-C16, saturated-amide linkage thioester-palmitoylation reversible, regulates-lacoted only cytoplasmic face of plasma membrane

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93

Pectin structure

heterogeneous polysaccharides- alpha(1-4) galacturonate with rhamnose

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94

peptidoglycan structure

Polymer of disaccharide.NAG: N-acetylglycosamine (shorter, OH-H),NAM: N-acetylmuramic acid (longer, H/O-HC-CH3-C=O-OH). Linked by Polypeptide Cross Bridge (pentaglycine)

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95

peptidoglycan

-makes up cell wall of bacteria-thickness and complexity of cell wall determines gram - or +

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96

phosphatidic acid structure

-X is H+-C1 is saturated with 16 - 18 carbons-C2 is unsaturated with 16-20 carbons

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97

Phosphoglycerides

C1 and C2 esterfied with fatty acidsC3 contains phosphate-amphiphilic

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98

Phospholipase

-enzyme that Hydrolyzes glycerophoslips*changes structure and disrupts membranes-insoluable

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99

Phospholipid translocase

transport specific phospholipids across a bilayer

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100

plasmolagens

Contains an ether linkage instead of ester linkage

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