Memory - Unit 2

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123 Terms

1

schemas

how people organize and understand information

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2

parallel/dual processing

allows our brains to interpret numerous stimuli & events at one time

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3

multi-store model

sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory

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4

sensory memory

we process everything we sense (this information disappears unless you pay attention)

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5

iconic memory

visual images

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6

echoic memory

auditory signals (think of echo or song)

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7

selective attention

voluntary focus on a portion or sensory input (selective hearing; listen to tv instead of parents)

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8

divided attention

focus on multiple sensory inputs

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9

cocktail party effect

ability to filter out everything except what is important to you

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10

memory span

the number of items a person can remember and repeat back using short term memory

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11

George A. Miller

seven digits thing

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12

Hermann Eddinghaus

found the serial position effect

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13

primary effect

recall initial terms

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14

recency effect

recall the last item in a series

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15

chunking

increase amount of information in short term memory (1996, 2022, 2001)

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16

maintenance rehearsal

repeating information to keep in short term memory

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17

information - processing memory

3 step process for entering info into long - term memory (encoding, rehearsal, retrieval)

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18

encoding

converting info so the brain can understand it (similar to coding for a computer)

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19

elaborate rehearsal

transfer from short term to long term memory

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20

shallow processing

memorize; tend to forget ideas quickly

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21

deep processing

meaningful analysis of info

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22

episodic memories

post events from personal experiences (emotions)

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23

semantic memories

basic facts and information (colors, formulas)

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24

procedural memories

remembering steps in process (tie your shoes, cooking)

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25

automatic processing

processing that occurs without you being aware of it

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26

implicit memories

retained without conscious awareness (muscle movements, open door)

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27

priming

cues that lead to retrieval from long term memory (sights, sounds)

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28

effortful processing

conscious effort to encode memories (studying key terms)

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29

explicit memories

conscious thoughts to bring to mind (powerhouse of cell)

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30

state dependent memory

same state of consciousness as when memory formed (learn something while chewing gum)

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31

mood dependent memory

retrieval is easier in same mood (emotions have to be genuine)

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32

context dependent memory

retrieval in same environment (gum, music)

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33

recognition

identifying information from a list of potential options (multiple choice questions)

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34

recall

retrieving information from memory directly (without help/FRQ)

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35

savant syndrome

memory abilities above average

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36

tip of the tongue state

"its" on the tip of my tongue

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37

prospective memory

"memory of the future"; remembering to do something later

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38

relearning

learn something you previously learned

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39

learning curve

shows the relationship between increase of learning and experience

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40

encoding failure

info fails to enter long term memory because it was never encoded

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41

memory traces

physical changes in brain that occur when memories are stored

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42

trace decay theory

if you don't trace, it will become weaker

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43

interference theory

how different memories can interrupt each other (parents calling you your siblings name)

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44

retroactive interference

new memories interrupt retrieval of old memories

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45

proactive interference

old memories interrupt retrieval of new memories

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46

forgetting curve

shows exponential loss of information shortly after learning

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47

retrograde amnesia

forgetting events before injury (playing sports and getting injury)

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48

anterograde amnesia

inability to form new long term memories

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49

pseudo-memories

false memories that a person believes is true

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50

misinformation effect

new information alters previous way information is held in memory

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51

source amnesia

memory retains substance but the source is forgotten

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52

flashbulb memories

vivid and detailed memories of major events (9/11, Queen's death)

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53

phoneme

smallest sound in a language

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54

morphemes

language that has meaning (prefixes)

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55

syntax

grammar

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56

semantics

understanding the meaning of phrases and sentences in a literal way

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57

pragmatics

understanding the meaning of phrases and sentences in context

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58

babbling stage

infants making random sounds

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59

one word stage

child speaks simple words

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60

two word stage

child says 2 to 3 word statements

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61

overgeneralization

incorrect use of grammar (mommy buyed me a present)

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62

sensitive/critical period

difficulty learning language later in life

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63

linguistic relativity

language influences thought

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64

concepts

mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, or people (different types of chairs)

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65

category hierarchies

superordinate and subordinate

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66

prototype

mental image of a specific concept or category

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67

exemplar

prototype from personal experience

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68

critical thinking

goes beyond concepts and prototypes

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69

creative thinking

ability to produce original and valuable ideas

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70

convergent thinking

question only leads to one correct answer (not creative thinking)

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71

divergent thinking

when a question or problem has many possible responses

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72

metacognition

thinking about thinking

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73

fixed mindset

problem can't be solved

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74

growth mindset

problem is solvable

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75

trial and error

problems with few solutions

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76

analogies

help solve problems but are difficult to spontaneously think of

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77

algorithms

problem solving step by step

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78

heuristics

mental shortcuts; save problems faster

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79

insight

sudden realization of a solution; "lightbulb"

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80

intuition

knowing info without knowing how you know it

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81

self - serving bias

attribute positive results to internal factors (I did great because I'm awesome), negative for external (I failed because of someone else)

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82

confirmation bias

search for information you already believe in

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83

belief perseverance

cling to initial conceptions even if proven incorrect

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84

hindsight bias

overestimate ability to know what's going to happen

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85

functional fixedness

inability to see problem from a different perspective (lack of creative thinking)

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86

mental set

approach problem in ways that have worked in the past

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87

anchoring effect

favoring the first information offered

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88

representativeness heuristic

making assumptions based on how they match problems

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89

availability heuristic

make a decision based on the information that first comes to mind

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90

illusory correlation

incorrect belief that a correlation is actually causation

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91

gambler's fallacy

incorrect belief will occur based on results of previous events

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92

sunk-cost fallacy

continue behavior due to resources invested in it

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93

effort justification

think higher of actions after a lot of effort has been put in

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94

Sir Francis Galton

Believed in heritability of intelligence (nature)

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95

Mental age

Age child was operating at (comparison to peers)

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96

Chronological age

Actual age of child

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97

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon

Focused on environmental factors of intelligence (nurture)

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98

Lewis Terman

Wanted to bring IQ tests to U.S (invented Stanford-Binet Test)

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99

David Wechsler

Criticized the Stanford-Binet tests for being too focused on verbal skills (memory, English)

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100

Charles Spearman

Noticed people who scored higher on one measure of intelligence will score well on others

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