bio exam 1 (lecture 1-6)

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classification of life (first 4)

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Biology

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1

classification of life (first 4)

domain, kingdom, genus, species

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2

biological organization (smallest to biggest)

atom, molecules, micromolecules, organelles, cells, tissue, organ, organ system, ogranism

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3

3 sub-atomic particles

protons, neutrons, electrons

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4

chemical bond

energy relationship holding atoms together

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5

chemical reaction

lost, gaines or shared of electons between atoms

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6

intramolecular bonds

hold together atoms for 1 molecule

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7

intermolecular bonds

hold together several molecules

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8

4 macromolecules

lipids, protein, amino acids, carbohydrates

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9

several organelles = ?

macromolecules

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10

smallest unit of life + have characteristics of life = ?

cell

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11

4 type of tissue

epithelial, muscle, nervous, connective

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12

11 organ system (say there functions out loud, don’t write it down)

integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive

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13

4 compoments of integumentary system

skin, hair, nails, gland

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14

2 layers of skin

epidermis (epithelial cells + protective shield) and dermis (connective tissue + bulk tought/leathery layer)

<p>epidermis (epithelial cells + protective shield) and dermis (connective tissue + bulk tought/leathery layer)</p>
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15

what is a bruises?

an injury transmitted through unbroken skin to underlying tissue causing rupture of small blood vessels and escape of blood into the tissue with resulting discoloration

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16

what is a bed sore?

areas of the skin that are under pressure from lying in bed, sitting in a wheelchair, or wearing a cast for a prolonged time.

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17

what is a calluse?

a thickened and hardened part of the skin or soft tissue, especially in an area that has been subjected to friction

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18

what is a sunburn?

tissue damage (kills cells) inflicted by intense radiation from the sun

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19

what part of the skeletal system affects to formation and protection of blood elements?

red marrow in certain bones

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20

appendicular skeleton?

bones of the limbs and girdle (pectoral gridle, pelvic gridle, upper limbs and lower limbs)

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21

axil skeleton?

axis of the body, supports head/neck/trunk, protects brain/spinal cord/organs in thorax (skull, vertbral column, thoracic cage)

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22

5 region vertebrea column (top to bottom)

cervical curvature, thoracic curvature, lumbar curvature, sacral curvature, coccyx

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23

relationship between muscular and skeletal system

muscle attached bones, pulling on them so they can move

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24

urinary track

kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra

<p>kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra</p>
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25

3 muscle tissue

cardiac (involuntary), skeletal (voluntary), smooth (unvoluntary)

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26

diaphragm and intercostal muscles = ? type

skeletal muscle

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27

muscle can shorten (_____) forcibly

contract

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28

muscle can be excitable… define

undergo neural stimulation ( respond to input from nervous system)

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29
<p>identifie MOUTH, PAHRYNX, ESOPHAGUS, SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINES, LIVER, PANCREAS</p>

identifie MOUTH, PAHRYNX, ESOPHAGUS, SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINES, LIVER, PANCREAS

knowt flashcard image
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30

alimentary canal/ gastrointestinal tract (GI tract)

continous muscular tube from mouth to anus, digest food and absorbs digested fragements puts it into blood

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31

ingestion?

taking food into digestive tract (eating)

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32

digesting

enzyme secreted to break down food molecules

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33

absorption

passage of digested end products from lumen of GI tract throught mucosal cells into blood and lympth

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34

defecation

eleminates indigestible substances in anus (feces)

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35

most absorption happens…?

small intestine

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36

digestive disease/imbalance = ?

constipation, diarrhea, celiac’s disease, reflux, intolerances, food allergies, hepatitis

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37

what organ is both in endocrine and digestive systeme?

pancreas

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38

why is it important to maintain boundaries?

maintain the integrity of living system and mediate what goes in and out of cell

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39

what is in the internal environmental?

extracellular fluid which surrounds cell and fluid in blood

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40

what is the external environnement ?

surrounds the body, we cannot control, organism lives

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41

extracellular fluid (ECF) vs intracellular fluid (ICF)

fluid that is bathing the cells (blood plasma, interstitial- outside blood vessel and cell,cerebrospinal fluid, lymph) vs majority of fluid in body

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42

2 types of movement

muscle movement and cell movement

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43

what are the 10 requirements for life?

maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, energy transfer, excretion, reproduction, growth and development, maintaining homeostasis

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44

what are the two external response to stimuli?

physical and chemical (5 senses)

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45

what are the two exemples of internal response to stimuli?

bladder stretch and neurotransmitters

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46

2 parts of metabolism?

catabolism (breakdown molecules) and anabolism (building molecules)

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47

what is the purpose of energy transfer/ making ATP?

to fuel our cells

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48

2 types of excretions?

waste product of metabolism (urea, carbon dioxide) and undigested/unabsorbed food (feces)

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49

2 type of cell reproduction + 1 other type?

mitosis and meiosis, sexual reproduction

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50

2 parts of growth in a zygote?

prenatal development and post natal development

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51

what is homeostasis?

maintaining a relatively stable internal environment (equilibrium)

<p>maintaining a relatively stable internal environment (equilibrium)</p>
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52

3 components of homeostasis

receptor, control center and effector

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53

what does the receptor do?

detects and responds to stimuli

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54

what does the control center (brain or gland) do?

control (decides) set point, receives input and determines appropriate response

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55

what does the effector do?

receives output and causes a change in variables

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56

positive vs negative feedback?

positive feedback amplifies change while negative feedback reduces change

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57

positive feedbck?

increase the change or output (the result of a reaction is amplified to make it occur more quickly)

<p> increase the change or output<span style="font-family: Google Sans, arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(32, 33, 36)"> (the result of a reaction is amplified to make it occur more quickly)</span></p>
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58

negative feedback?

when the product of a reaction leads to a decrease in that reaction (bring target closer to stability or homoestasis).

<p><span style="font-family: Lato, sans-serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0)">when the product of a reaction leads to a decrease in that reaction (bring target closer to stability or homoestasis).</span></p>
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59

3 system involved in pH homeostasis

blood buffering system, respiratory system and urinary system

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60

why is pH homeostatis critical to survive?

The activity of most chemical reactions via enzyme proteins is dependent on fluid pH.

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61

pH

acid = 1-6, neutral = 7, base = 8-14

high concentration H+ = low pH

urine (acidic), saliva (neutral), blood (basic)

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62

carbonic acid-bicarbonate ion buffering system

CO2 + H20 ← → H2CO3 ← → H+ + HCO3-

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63

5 factors for survival

sunlight, water, air, habitat and food

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64

define buffers

minimize changes in pH when acids or bases are added to a solution

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65

define bicarbonate buffer system

chemical system that helps maintain pH homeostasis of the blood (aka) carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system

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66

what is gross anatomy (not by heart)

structure of organs and tissues that are visible to the naked eye

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67

what is cytology (not by heart)

microscopic study of plant and animal cells

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68

what is histology (not by heart)

study of the microscopic structure of tissue

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69

what is panthology (not by heart)

causes and effects of diseases

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70

what is microbiology (not by heart)

concerned with very small living things such as bacteria and their effects on people

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71

what are the 3 characteristics of standard anatomical position?

body erect, feet slightly apart + parallel, arms hanging on side with palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away

<p>body erect, feet slightly apart + parallel, arms hanging on side with palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away</p>
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72

what are the 3 perpendicular planes

sagittal (midsagittal or parasagittal), frontal (coronal), transverse

<p>sagittal (midsagittal or parasagittal), frontal (coronal), transverse</p>
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73

what are the directional terms

superior vs inferior

anterior (ventral) vs posterior (dorsal)

medial vs lateral vs intermediate

proximal vs distal

superficial (external) vs deep (internal)

<p>superior vs inferior</p><p>anterior (ventral) vs posterior (dorsal) </p><p>medial vs lateral vs intermediate</p><p>proximal vs distal</p><p>superficial (external) vs deep (internal)</p>
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74

2 major skeletal divisions

axial (head, neck and trunk) and appendicular (arms, legs and attachment)

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75

4 quadrants of abdominopelvic cavity

right upper quadrant (RUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), left lower quadrant (LLQ)

<p>right upper quadrant (RUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), left lower quadrant (LLQ)</p>
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76

what are 2 body cavities (understand where each organ is)

ventral (pericardial, pleural, abdominal and pelvic cavities) and dorsal (cranial and vertebral)

<p>ventral (pericardial, pleural, abdominal and pelvic cavities) and dorsal (cranial and vertebral)</p>
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77

body cavities flowchart

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78

what is a body cavity?

fluid-filled space inside the body that holds and protects internal organs, separated by membranes and other structures

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79

organic vs inorganic molecules?

organic compounds = mostly C and H (carbone backbone)

inorganic compound = substance dowsnt contain C and H (minerals and water)

<p>organic compounds = mostly C and H (carbone backbone)</p><p>inorganic compound = substance dowsnt contain C and H (minerals and water)</p>
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80

4 roles played by ions (H+, O-, ect.)

electron transport, redox reactions, energy metabolism, maintaining osmotic pressure

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81

3 major components of body fluid

water, electrolytes, nutrients

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82

solutes (sub. dissolved in solution) + solvants (dissolving agent + water = universal solvant) = ________?

solutions

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83

intramolecular + intermolecular bonds in H2O

 

<p><span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0)">&nbsp;</span></p>
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84

7 functions of H2O in body

prevents sudden changes in temperature, solvent, hydrosis reactions, transport, cell volume/blood volume/blood pressure, flushes out waste, lubricates/cleans/protects

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85

MAINTAINING FLUID BALANCE : what does ADH (antidiuretic hormone) from brain do?

retain water + thirst mechaninsm that makes you cosume fluids when dehydrated

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86

define dehydration

water loss exceeds water intake

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87

define heat exhaustion

body overheating + heavy sweating

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88

define heat stroke

body temp. even higher + no sweating + rapid pulse

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89

where is water found?

ICF (intracellular fluid) and ECF (extracellular fluid)

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90

what are monomers?

small molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules by dehydration synthesis rx (anabolic) and hydrolosis rx can reverse process

<p>small molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules by dehydration synthesis rx (anabolic) and hydrolosis rx  can reverse process</p>
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91

what monomer is each macromolecule made up of?

monosaccharides (simple sugar) = carbohydrate

amino acids = protein

glycerol/fatty acids = lipids

nucleotides - nucleic acid

<p>monosaccharides (simple sugar) = carbohydrate</p><p>amino acids = protein</p><p>glycerol/fatty acids = lipids</p><p>nucleotides - nucleic acid</p>
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92

What is the function of carbs?

energy (immediate energy + energy storage) and found in other molecules (DNA)

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93

define hydophilic (carbohydrates)

“water-loving”, tendency to be wetted in water, opposite of hydrophobic

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94

what is the difference between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides

monosaccharides = simple form carbohydrates, makes ATP

disaccharides = 2 monosaccharides (digests mono and bonded together)

polysaccharides = 3 or more monosaccharides

<p>monosaccharides = simple form carbohydrates, makes ATP</p><p>disaccharides = 2 monosaccharides (digests mono and bonded together) </p><p>polysaccharides = 3 or more monosaccharides</p>
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95

what is a monosaccharide found in blood and the most common compoment for larger carbohydrates?

glucose

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96

define dextrose

glucose that is administered via IV

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97

glucose vs sucrose vs glycogen

monosaccharide + simple carb

disaccharide + table sugar

polysaccharide + complex carb, excess glucose

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98

2 hormone that maintain blood sugar homeostasis

glucagon (increases : glucogen → glucose) and insulin (deacreases : glucose → glycogen)

<p>glucagon (increases : glucogen → glucose) and insulin (deacreases : glucose → glycogen)</p>
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99

DIABETES : type 1 vs type 2

little or no insuline

insulin receptors not very sensitive to insulin/ don’t make enought insulin (obesity)

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100

define glycemix index

a scale that ranks a carbohydrate-containing food or drink by how much it raises blood glucose after it is eaten or drunk

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