chapter 14

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Cerebrum

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128 Terms

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Cerebrum

Most volume; right and left hemispheres; separated by longitudinal fissure

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Cerebral hemispheres

Right and left hemispheres

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Gyrus (gyri)

Surface fold

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sulcus (sulci)

Indention

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corpus callosum

Large bundle of axons (white matter) that links the 2 hemispheres

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Rostral

Toward forehead (superior)

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Caudal

Toward spinal cord (inferior)

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Cerebellum

Inferior/caudal to cerebrum; rests in posterior fossa of skull

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Diencephalon

Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus; deep (in center) mostly hidden by cerebrum

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Brainstem

Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

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dural sinus

Enlarged veins between the periosteal and meningeal layers

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dura folds

"seatbelts" for the brain meningeal layer folds inward, anchors brain

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Superior sagittal sinus

an unpaired venous structure that originates at the junction of the frontal and ethmoid bone, directly posterior to the foramen cecum close to the crista galli

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transverse sinus

runs laterally in a groove along the interior surface of the occipital bone

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falx cerebri

in longitudinal fissure

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Tentorium cerebelli

Between cerebrum & cerebelli

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falx cerebelli

Between right and left halves of cerebellum

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interventricular foramina

Connect them in the 3rd ventricle

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Cerebral aqueduct

Connects it to the 4th ventricle

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central canal

Extends into the spinal cord

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choroid plexus

Masses of capillaries in the floors and walls of the ventricles

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Ependymal cells

Line ventricles/canals and, thus, cover the choroid plexuses

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arachnoid villi (granulations)

Reabsorb CSF -> superior sagittal sinus so it can be reabsorbed into the venous blood

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Hydrocephalus

Water on the brain

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Blood-CSF barrier

Tight junctions between ependymal cells covering choroid plexus capillaries

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blood-brain barrier

Tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells; astrocytes -> tight junction formation

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cerebral cortex

Gray matter, cerebral surface

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Stellate cells

Round somas, short axon, dendrites in all directions

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pyramidal cells

Tall and conical; only neurons with output from cortex; apical dendrite goes to brain surface; horizontal dendrites; axon goes to white matter

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Basal nuclei

Masses of gray matter deep within the white matter of the cerebrum

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limbic system

Gray matter structures around corpus callosum, medial side of both cerebral hemispheres

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cerebellar cortex

Surface of cerebellum; cerebellum 10% of brain weight but 50% of brain neurons

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Deep nuclei

Location of gray matter; in each cerebellar hemisphere

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granule cells

Tiny, abundant neurons

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Purkinje cells

Huge, globose neurons; dendrite forest

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Reticular formation

Loose web of gray matter

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arbor vitae

Axons connect cerebellum with spinal cord and rest of the brain (input and output)

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association tracts

Connect regions within same hemisphere; long association fibers between lobes; short association fibers between gyri

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Commissural tracts

Between cerebral hemispheres; mostly in corpus callosum; 2 hemispheres communicate

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projection tracts

Vertical; between higher brain and lower brain/spinal cord

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gracile and cuneate fasciculi

Pair of posterior ridges

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Pyramids

Anterior ridges with nerve fibers from the corticospinal tract

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corticospinal tract

Descending/Motor; carry signals from the cerebral cortex to skeletal muscles

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Olives

Inferior olivary nucleus; relays info (from brain and cord) to cerebellum

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Cerebellar peduncles

Stalks that connect cerebellum to medulla; contain tracts that transmit signals from spinal cord to cerebellum

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Pons

Relays impulses between higher and lower brain regions

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corpora quadrigemina

the four colliculi, two inferior and two superior, that sit on the quadrigeminal plate on the posterior surface of the midbrain

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Red nucleus

High density of blood vessels; works with cerebellum for fine motor control

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substantia nigra

Dark from melanin; produces dopamine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter; regulates body movement

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cerebral crus

Contains corticospinal tracts

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Diencephalon

Made up of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus; deep (in center) mostly hidden by cerebrum

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Thalamus

⅘ of diencephalon; 2 oval masses superior to brainstem

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Hypothalamus

Maintains homeostasis

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Pineal gland

Makes up most of the epithalamus

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Melatonin

Secreted by pineal gland, increased secretion in the dark; used by some as a sleep aid

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Vermis

Between hemispheres

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Folia

Ridges, sulci between

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sensory homunculus

Postcentral gyrus; size of homunculus' part corresponds to area of cortex assigned for it; face and hands have more sensory receptors and cortex

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Somatotopy

Maps body area to Primary Motor Cortex

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Agnosia

Inability to recognize familiar objects

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Prosopagnosia

Can remember familiar faces, own face, in mirror

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multimodal area

Integrate many sensory inputs

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Central sulcus

Separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, more specifically separates the primary motor cortex anteriorly from the primary somatosensory cortex posteriorly

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precentral gyrus

is the anatomical location of the primary motor cortex, which is responsible for controlling voluntary motor movement on the body's contralateral side

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postcentral gyrus

posterior to central sulcus; receives information from receptors for touch, pressure, stretch, movement, hot, cold, pain

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Motor homunculus

Precentral gyrus; size of homunculus' part corresponds to area of cortex assigned for it; face and hands have more cortex (small motor units)

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Dyskinesias

Movement disorders involving involuntary muscle movement

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Huntington disease

Genetic, neurodegenerative disease that affects basal nuclei and cerebral cortex

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Parkinson's disease

Substantia nigra not producing dopamine -> less inhibitory effect of dopamine on basal nuclei -> involuntary contractions

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cerebral palsy

Loss of muscle coordination because of damage to motor areas of the cerebral cortex during fetal development, birth, or infancy

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Ataxia

Lack of muscle control or coordination of voluntary movement; often involves problems with cerebellum; clumsy, awkward walking

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Wernicke area

In temporal lobe, usually left; responsible for understanding and recognition of language; formulates phrases, plan of speech -> sends plan to broca area

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Aphasia

Language deficit caused by lesions in hemisphere with wernicke and broca areas

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Broca's area

In frontal lobe, same hemisphere as wernicke, usually left; plans muscle use to speak (-> 1 degree motor cortex -> larynx, tongue, lips, cheek)

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Cognition

Mental process of acquiring knowledge and using it (understanding, reasoning, problem solving etc

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)

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contralateral neglect

Unaware of objects or body parts on the contralateral side

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Learning

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Memory

Mammillary nuclei connect to hippocampus and thalamus

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explicit memory

Declarative memory, "words/numbers"

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Implicit memory

Procedural memory (ability to tie one's shoes); emotional memory (fear of a wasp)

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Amnesia

Defect in explicit memory

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retrograde amnesia

Cannot recall info they once knew

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Anterograde amnesia

Cannot store new info

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Alzheimer disease

Atrophy of cerebral cortex, hippocampus and other brain regions

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neurofibrillary tangles

Broken, twisted cytoskeleton in some neurons

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Senile plaques (beta-amyloid)

Proteins that should be broken down but instead accumulate in extracellular space

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EEG

Electrodes on scalp record surface electrical activity; useful for diagnosis and study of sleep disorders, metabolic problems, tumors, trauma, degenerative brain diseases

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Sleep

Controlled by interaction between cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and reticular formation

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Sleep paralysis

Inhibition of muscular activity (resembles coma but can be aroused by sensory stimulation)

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circadian rhythms

Cycles that sleep is a part of (events reoccur at intervals of about 24 hours)

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REM (paradoxical) sleep

Vitals increase, EEG like awake, harder to wake; about 5x a night, go back to stage 1-2

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Orexins

Neuropeptides that stimulate wakefulness (Low in narcolepsy - excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue)

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Concepts

Place structures in appropriate brain area

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Brain steum Medulla oblongata Pons Midbrain 2

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Diencephalon Thalamas Hypothalamus Epithalamus 3

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Cerebellum 4

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Cerebrum Cortex

5 lobes Basal nuclei Limbic system

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Describe the 3 meninges; how are they arranged differently from those around the spinal cord

Dura Mater-No epidural space, 2 layers of dura (periosteal and meningeal layer), only the meningeal layer continues into the vertebral canal Arachnoid Mater-Transparent, subdural space (between dura and arachnoid, only in some spaces)

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Subarachnoid space (between arachnoid and pia, filled with CSF) Pia Mater-Microscopic, closely attached to the brain (follows sulci inward)

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